Besides gaining reputation with your questions and answers, you receive badges for being especially helpful. Badges appear on your profile page, flair, and your posts.

Question Badges

Ask a good question on 30 separate days, and maintain a positive question record
87 awarded
Question favorited by 25 users
51 awarded
Question score of 25 or more
153 awarded
Question with 2,500 views
3.2k awarded

Answer Badges

First to answer and accepted with score of 10 or more
602 awarded
Edit and answer 50 questions (both actions within 12 hours, answer score > 0)
9 awarded
Provide non-wiki answers of 15 total score in 20 of top 40 tags
21 awarded
Accepted answer and score of 40 or more
30 awarded
Answer score of 25 or more
195 awarded
Answer a question more than 60 days later with score of 5 or more
520 awarded
Zero score accepted answers: more than 5 and 20% of total
23 awarded

Participation Badges

Vote for a candidate in the final phase of an election
629 awarded
Leave 10 comments with score of 5 or more
17 awarded
Visit the site each day for 30 consecutive days. (Days are counted in UTC.)
372 awarded
Earn 200 daily reputation 50 times
Voted 10 times, added 3 posts score > 0, and visited the site on 3 separate days during the private beta
49 awarded
10 posts with score of 2 on meta
26 awarded
Post 10 messages in chat starred by 10 different users
1 awarded
Active member for a year, earning at least 200 reputation
2.9k awarded

Tag Badges

You must have a total score of 400 in at least 80 non-community wiki answers to achieve this badge.
34 awarded

Moderation Badges

Raise 80 helpful flags
23 awarded
Vote 300 or more times
161 awarded
Complete at least 250 review tasks. This badge is awarded once per review type
71 awarded
Edit 80 posts
49 awarded
Edit 100 posts that were inactive for 6 months
4 awarded
Up vote 100 answers on questions where an answer of yours has a positive score
18 awarded
Edit 50 tag wikis
7 awarded
Create a tag used by 50 questions
162 awarded

Other Badges

Share a link to a question later visited by 300 unique IP addresses
6 awarded