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Using ArcMap 9.3, I want to georeference a scanned map of Sudan (Africa) as .jpg file format,coordinate points are marked on scanned map in 4 degree intervals. I am not familiar to georeferencing in ArcMap.

So looking for a detail guide line for georeferencing in ArcMap (using 4 control points) and also looking for a guide line to edit the spatial reference in base map with the suitable PCS information for the AOI.

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Googling "georeference a scanned map ArcGIS 10" produces loads of good answers. – whuber May 20 '11 at 13:16
if the coordinates and pixel size of the image are known a jpw or jpgw text file can be created without manually georeferencing image in ArcMap.… – Mapperz May 20 '11 at 14:02
Doing this programmatically would be difficult - Esri doesn't expose the arcobjects for ESRI.ArcGIS.GeoReferenceUI. – Kirk Kuykendall May 20 '11 at 14:02
but you can do it outside the 'esri gis' loop with excel and simple dos .bat files - found it much more efficient for tens of thousands of .pngs for a web/desktop app. – Mapperz May 20 '11 at 16:02

Read this PDF. All the steps are clearly illustrated - Georeferencing of Scanned Maps & Spatial Adjustment of Vector Data -

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See the ESRI link for the same...

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We're looking for long answers that provide some explanation and context. Don't just give a one-line answer; explain why your answer is right, ideally with citations. Answers that don't include explanations may be removed.

Take a look at this Esri video: Georeferencing Rasters in ArcGIS.

Here also short guide (2 pages): Georeferencing Images in ArcMap.

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I recommend following the instructions at Fundamentals of georeferencing a raster dataset:

Raster data is commonly obtained by scanning maps or collecting aerial photographs and satellite images. Scanned map datasets don't normally contain spatial reference information (either embedded in the file or as a separate file). With aerial photography and satellite imagery, sometimes the location information delivered with them is inadequate, and the data does not align properly with other data you have. Thus, to use some raster datasets in conjunction with your other spatial data, you may need to align or georeference them to a map coordinate system.

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