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With the following set of recorded data:

  1. Location of Road Traffic Accident (RTA) along 160km Expressway
  2. Date of accident
  3. Time of occurrence
  4. Causes of the accident etc

What spatial analysis tool in ArcGIS 10.1 can be used to show whether the RTA occurred during the day and night have the same spatial pattern or not? i.e in terms of cluster or being dispersed.

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Start by adding a new field to determine whether "time of occurrence" is "day" or "night" to simplify subsequent analysis.

The simplest approach -- and always a good start -- would be to symbolize daytime/nighttime incidents differently, and visually examine the data. Does it look like there is a visible difference, are there any patterns?

A statistical approach will use the Spatial Statistics tools, not Spatial Analyst. Start with spatial autocorrelation (Moran's I), then look into Cluster/Outlier Analysis, or Hot Spot Analysis -- maybe Mean Center analysis. These can either verify visible clustering, or pick out patterns that the human eye cannot see.

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