how could I do the following steps with arcpy:
- right-click on the layer with the features
- Label Features
- Convert Labels to Annotations ...
The annotions should be saved in a new shapefile.
How could I do this in python?
Below is a similar question to yours that was answered on this site.
You can enable labels through use of the LabelClass class in arcpy's mapping module, but I am not aware of a method for creating annotations in python. Hopefully this will be added as ESRI continues to improve arcpy functionality and integration.