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I have GPS data I've taken of bus routes, and now I'd like to snap it to my road network. Both layers are line layers in a PostGIS DB. I'd like to use either QGIS or PostGIS, but if I have to go with GRASS or ArcMap, that's OK, too. Thanks!

To clarify, I'm trying to snap lines to lines, not points to lines.

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I used to have this function I used. Be careful it changes the geometry in the existing point table. I didn't use it for a long time but it seem like it should do the job. As far as I remember it works well if you have spatial indexes on both table. In order to call it

SELECT snap_point_to_line('points_table', 'line_table', 500). It will snap with a tolerance of 500, 500 being the unit of your projection system. I used to work with Lambert.

    CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION snap_point_to_line(points_table character varying, line_table character varying, tolerance double precision)
      RETURNS boolean AS
    $BODY$
    DECLARE         
            srid integer;
            i integer;

            row record;
            row_1 record;
            closest_distance double precision;

            query varchar;
            snapped_point geometry;
    BEGIN

      --Get the srid of the points table
        FOR row IN EXECUTE 'select getsrid(the_geom) as srid from '||points_table||' where gid = (select min(gid) from '||points_table||')' LOOP
        END LOOP;
        srid := row.srid;


     -- Add a column in which it will store the closest nodes from the line
     FOR row IN EXECUTE 'SELECT the_geom FROM '||points_table LOOP

        query := 'SELECT ST_Transform(the_geom,'||srid||') as the_geom, ST_Distance(GeometryFromText('''||ST_AsText(row.the_geom)||''','||srid||'), ST_Transform(the_geom,'||srid||')) as distance FROM ' ||line_table||' ORDER BY ST_Distance(GeometryFromText('''||ST_AsText(row.the_geom)||''','||srid||'), ST_Transform(the_geom,'||srid||'))  LIMIT 1';
        RAISE NOTICE '%',query; 
        FOR row_1 IN EXECUTE query LOOP
            closest_distance := row_1.distance;

            --If below the distance threeshold, then snap the point
            IF closest_distance < tolerance THEN
                snapped_point := ST_line_interpolate_point(ST_LineMerge(row_1.the_geom),ST_line_locate_point(ST_LineMerge(row_1.the_geom), row.the_geom));

                --UPDATE the_geometry
                EXECUTE 'UPDATE '||points_table||' SET the_geom = GeometryFromText('''||ST_AsText(snapped_point)||''','||srid||') WHERE ST_AsText(the_geom) = '''||ST_AsText(row.the_geom)||'''';

            END IF;
END LOOP;   
    END LOOP;
    RETURN true;
    END;
   $BODY$
    LANGUAGE 'plpgsql' VOLATILE STRICT
    COST 100;
    ALTER FUNCTION snap_point_to_line(character varying, character varying, double precision) OWNER TO yourowner;
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Thanks; is there a way to make this snap lines to lines? I don't think the linear referencing functions will work. (I've added a clarification to the original question). –  mattwigway Jul 30 '11 at 0:15
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