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I am looking for a process in ArcGIS that takes a point feature class and groups the points into a user-provided number of clusters.

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Have you explored the questions associated with the clustering tag? – whuber Jan 6 '12 at 20:38
    
@whuber I poked around for a while on the stack exchange without much luck. I'll explore and let you know what I find – Kjohnson Jan 9 '12 at 23:11
    
I found a bunch of good answers here. Perhaps more to the point, a brief survey of the variety of cluster-related questions will suggest the additional information you should be supplying to get a good solution to your problem. – whuber Jan 9 '12 at 23:39
    
I didn't find anything directly corresponding to what I'm looking for. However, Clusterpy has provided me with the impetus to just go ahead and try and script a solution in Python anyway. I find it strange that there's no obvious tool/solution for this in ArcGIS. – Kjohnson Jan 10 '12 at 21:45

k-means clustering is exactly what you want. Version 10.1 has k-means clustering... if you are beta program eligible you could try that. You could also try doing your k-means clustering in R and then bringing the results over the arcgis. I think there are also some 3rd party scripts out there for k-means clustering using versions 9.3 and 10.0 too.

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thanks for the suggestions. I'll snoop around and see what 3rd party scripts I can find. – Kjohnson Jan 9 '12 at 23:08
    
Have a look at Geospatial Modelling Environment (GME) - spatialecology.com/gme/kmeans.htm It requires ArcGIS 10.X and R. – Brent Edwards Oct 16 '15 at 16:21

If your data is attributed with some sort of "by type" field, you could use the Mean Center geoprocessing tool and set the case field.

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@ Hornbydd, good suggestion. However, I'm looking for a method to group points based on geographical proximity only. Thanks though. – Kjohnson Jan 9 '12 at 23:42
    
It is very useful this geoprocessing tool. – juasmilla Oct 3 '14 at 9:27

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