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I'm wondering if there have been any studies which attempt to analyze or characterize GPS error distribution over different situations/conditions (e.g. surrounded by tall buildings/mountains, precipitation/clouds/fog, rural areas, etc.) to understand how these errors may change as compared to 'perfect' conditions.

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up vote 1 down vote accepted

The general term for this is "Multi-path Error", which can be described as what happens when a GPS signal bounces on it's way to the receiver from the satellite instead of a direct line of sight.

Lighter reading is available in the top results from the following search:

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