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I have Shapefiles without a CRS (e.g. without .prj file).
I would like to set the CRS (EPSG:31468) before I pass the Shapefiles.
I tried the following:

  1. Setting a .prj file manually with the string

  2. Using ogr2ogr

    ogr2ogr -s_srs EPSG:31468 -t_srs EPSG:31468 out.shp in.shp

If I import those shapes into QGIS, QGIS always recognizes CRS EPSG:2167.
I have set in QGIS the correct CRS and exported it in a new file. The .prj of the new file is identical to that one of the input file.
So what's wrong with my files?!

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As an observation, you should only need to use -a_srs to override whatever projection the data is in. But that aside, it's a feature/bug in QGIS that it doesn't change the project's CRS when you load new data, you have to specify it manually either by going to Settings|Project Properties... and choosing the CRS you want, or right-clicking on your imported layer and select Set project CRS from layer.

IMO, it would be nice if QGIS defaulted to a "no CRS" and either prompted you for a CRS when you create a new project, or to automatically set the project's CRS from the first data that's loaded. It might be worth raising a feature request with the dev team, but I think this has been discussed before with the resolution that it should remain as is.

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Ok, I take a_srs. For the main question: No I meant something different: The CRS of the loaded shape/layer is recognized as 2167 (independently of the project CRS) even though it is defined as 31468 with ogr2ogr – user6848 Apr 12 '12 at 9:53
Where does it tell you what the layer's CRS is? On my copy of 1.7.0, I can find out the proj4 string in the layer's metadata, and I can see the EPSG code of the project on the right-hand side of the status bar, but that's it. – MerseyViking Apr 12 '12 at 10:00
This time I have the newer version: 1.7.4 ;) EPSG code is shown in Layer-Properties>General>Options or if you choose "Set layer CRS" in the context menu of the layer, the layer CRS is highlighted. – user6848 Apr 12 '12 at 10:21

Ok, I found in qgis help, that .prj are not adequate to determine the exact projection type. QGIS needs additional .qpj-Files with more information. As I understand, these files are QGIS-specific.

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