I would call that an "inset map" (that is, inset to another image or even map). I use them a lot to give a quick visual context to a higher resolution map on the same page.
There are quite a few sources of basic country outline data such as GADM, SLAB and World Borders Dataset from which you should be able to make a suitable simple inset map for Kazakhstan. Open the data in QGIS, select Kazakhstan from the layer's attributes and zoom to the location. Use a point dataset to place your point or add a point manually in the Map Composer and/or add labels to suit. You can then export your map as an image file from the Map Composer. If you already have the image you want to add the inset map to, you could include that in yuour map composition in QGIS.
I hope this helps.