Any OpenGL card should work well, whether NVidia or AMD. This quote from ArcGIS Desktop Help, gives a basic discussion of what graphics card you should buy for 3D Analyst:
Which graphics card should I buy?
A good OpenGL-compliant graphics card with at least 64 MB of texture
memory is recommended. Most desktop systems come equipped with power
graphics cards, but in general, if you are going to use a system for
3D visualization, you will want to make sure it is a workstation class
Workstation class graphics cards are discrete (as opposed to
integrated to the system's motherboard) graphics card available for
desktop and mobile (laptop) systems.
The major graphics card manufacturers (NVIDIA and AMD (ATI))
categorize their graphics card solutions into desktop, workstation,
and mobile. Experience has shown that the workstation class graphics
cards have better performance and support for professional 3D
applications, including 3D Analyst.
The rest of the article provides additional reference and useful information: FAQs for selecting graphics cards
To directly address the specific graphics card you mentioned, I have linked to the AMD FirePro V5900 Series Page. It lists the following specifications, which are specifically mentioned as desirable in the ArcGIS Help documentation:
- 2GB of RAM
- OpenGL 4.1
- GeometryBoost Technology - Geometry Acceleration
I think in general, this is probably a very good card, but as @blah238 stated, the graphics card in some, if not many cases, will not significantly improve the performance of your system when running some ArcGIS components.