You might try looking at your internet blocking as I am sure that these layer come from arcgis online. Can you open a globe from the start menu?
I don't play with globe much. But here is what i found on the esri resources page...
The GlobeDisplay object has a central role in managing and controlling tile generation and in the subsequent storing of data tiles for future use, called data caching. Data tiles are always stored in a memory cache and, optionally, in a disk cache. The main advantage of data caching is the improvement of visualization performance, as well as the reduction of repetitive data requests from data sources. The tile generator, IGlobeDisplayLayers.GenerateTiles, is used to preprocess data both in off-line mode, called full caching, and in an interactive on-demand mode, called on demand data caching.
Each data tile will be stored into memory and optionally onto disk for future use. Using data caching improves visualization performance. The ArcGlobe data caching structure is shown in the following diagram:
The GlobeLayerProperties coclass is the layer extension that contains globe-specific layer properties, such as a layer drawing priority on the surface of the globe, exposed as IGlobeLayerProperties.BaseImageDrawingPriority. This value relates to the position of the layers that are part of the base globe (that is, draped layers and elevation layers) in the drawing order. To get an ordered list of layers in the base globe, use IGlobeDrawingOrder.OrderedLayers.
Elevation layers are always on top of the ordered list followed by draped layers.
The GlobeLayerProperties object also controls the layer's cache data removal behavior via IGlobeLayerProperties.CacheRemovalOption. The default setting is the cache to be removed when exiting the application or removing the layer.