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Where can I find yearly annual averaged temperature data for every city and town in the US and Australia for a heatmap?

links are good

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Just for clarification, are you looking for point data, or can you work with raster data as well? –  Baltok Jan 25 '13 at 15:25
    
you can use whatever you like, probably best to use whatever is easier –  kittensatplay Jan 28 '13 at 23:50
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5 Answers

up vote 7 down vote accepted

The resource at GOSIC: http://gosic.org/content/gcos-surface-network-gsn-data-access

It's not every town and city - but it's the most comprehensive coverage for international comparison.

Of course, you could go big and get the data straight from the University of East Anglia: http://www.cru.uea.ac.uk/cru/data/temperature/#datdow

But be prepared for a steep learning curve....

There's NOAA coverage for detail in the USA: http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/land-based-station-data/quality-controlled-local-climatological-data-qclcd

and for Australia the link is: http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/change/

... have fun coloring in things Purple!

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there is never a steep learning curve. just bad data, bad transmition of info, and bad user-friendly –  kittensatplay Jan 29 '13 at 0:09
    
while other answers are ok, i like how the best answer is from the lowest reps ^_^ –  kittensatplay Jan 29 '13 at 0:16
    
Long time stalker, only recent contributor! –  Andrew Tice Jan 30 '13 at 0:21
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Try Worldclim it's a raster set, with several clim average measurements from 1950 - 2000.

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For Australia, climate data is available from the Bureau of Meteorology.

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The Weather Underground Weather API

has the option (free) for historical weather is coverage more than US and Australia

There is a pricing structure if your are doing more than 500 API calls a day.

But worth looking in into:

http://www.wunderground.com/weather/api/d/pricing.html

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I've used PRISM data before: http://www.prism.oregonstate.edu/

Some of it's free, some you have to $$$

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