I routinely use a two-monitor setup with my portable Precision workstation. When I'm in laptop only mode, my Table of Contents may appear briefly as a shadow on the extreme margin of the screen, then it disappears and I am unable to view it or the catalog windows. I'm using ArcMap 10.0 and Windows 7.0
I would try deleting the Normal.mxt as described here.
That should restore the factory settings.
As a precaution be sure to follow advice of @blah238 and rename rather than delete the Normal.mxt just "in case it doesn't help and you've customized a lot of stuff".