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Is there a map that shows how lat/long maps to locality/county/sublocality/subadmin and possibly covered area?

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No, each lat/lng is done individually to match an address. (Using Google)

https://developers.google.com/maps/documentation/geocoding/#ReverseGeocoding

Note: Reverse geocoding is an estimate. The geocoder will attempt to find the closest addressable location within a certain tolerance; if no match is found, the geocoder will return zero results.

I don't use Apple products so cannot comment on Apple Maps (they do need to improve a lot).

Nokia (they own Navteq) and MapQuest are also a good contenders for reverse geocoding

http://www.developer.nokia.com/Community/Wiki/Nokia_Maps_API_-_Using_the_geocoding_service

http://developer.mapquest.com/web/products/open/nominatim

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I am not looking for a reverse geocoding service but an overall map of where lat/lng falls in place and how that map defines its geo-fences at each scale. Even approximately. –  qnoid Feb 5 '13 at 9:09
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It does not exist as far as I know, been using gmaps since beta, it is based on algorithms and would be classified as 'commercially sensitive' as they do not want competitors to have that knowledge. –  Mapperz Feb 5 '13 at 14:29
    
Or in other words, it's not really standardised across providers. –  qnoid Feb 5 '13 at 17:14
    
"Trade secrets". –  blah238 Feb 5 '13 at 23:00
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Tiger Census 5-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) Cartographic Boundary Files is where you want to go. If you want to pay and have a much higher accuracy rate use Maponics or Navteq data

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