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I am trying to select the use of a large vector line file within only the parameter of a vector polygon file to do spatial analysis. It would be the same thing as using the extract> clip tool under the analysis tools that is for two polygon files. What tool do I use that works to clip a vector line layer to a polygon layer?

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It is the same tool i.e. Clip_analysis.

There is a diagram showing this in its online help at where it also says:

When the Input Features are lines, the Clip Features can be lines or polygons.

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I would (in arcmap)select the polygon(I think you are asking about 1 polygon), but it works without selecting anything also.
Use the toolbox and the intersect tool.
Selecting your line layer first.
Then it is easy to get the attribute of the polygon selected in the lines. They are also broken at the poly edges.

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