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Scalebar:

SCALEBAR
  LABEL
    COLOR 0 0 0
    SIZE SMALL
  END
  STYLE 0
  SIZE 180 8
  POSITION lc
  COLOR 0 0 0
  UNITS MILES
  INTERVALS 2
  TRANSPARENT TRUE
  STATUS EMBED
END

I didn't even have a projection prior to adding the scalebar, I would just use the same projection per layer. So, I added that same projection outside the layers:

PROJECTION
  "proj=latlong"
  "ellps=WGS84"
  "datum=WGS84"
END

Currently the scale bar comes up correct in size and intervals (2). The distance is 40 miles, which is definitely incorrect.

Any ideas on how to fix this?

Picture of map

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Could you provide more information about how you know the distance is incorrect? After all, you clearly are not using a projection; and in your geographic units, the scale differs radically according to orientation (and from north to south). –  whuber Jun 19 '13 at 22:18
    
Hi Whuber, see the question for a picture. I think based on that we can agree that is NOT 40 miles. How am I not using a projection? Because it's set to latlong? –  DfnD Jun 19 '13 at 22:23
1  
Lat-lon is not a projection: those are the coordinates for the ellipsoid. Your picture is helpful: near the location where your scalebar appears, (1) Antarctica ought to be shown--I guess you have a limited dataset of the world :-)--and (2) the distance on the scalebar could be anywhere from a few millimeters to a few hundred miles: you are smack at the south pole, where you can walk all the way around the world in a few steps! It looks like the software is correct. –  whuber Jun 19 '13 at 22:31
    
I COULD post Antarctica, but then there's also a border around the main map, so it's odd-looking (very odd) if you use different colors. So I just used that light-blue for Antarctica/borders and the oceans. Let me know what you think, I still think it's wrong but I'll tinker with it some more. –  DfnD Jun 19 '13 at 22:37
    
Also note: according to our GIS guy, 'we edited out the South Pole'. Not sure how much of an effect that has on this 'issue'. –  DfnD Jun 19 '13 at 22:40
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