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I want to create spatial data for entire India.

Usually I use WGS84 as GCS and UTM zones for PCS in the places in India, but when I have to create the spatial data for entire India, I get confused which geographical coordinate systems and projected coordinate system will be suitable.

What are suitable ones?

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If you are creating Vector data, then it's best to keep the data in a geographic coordinate System with WGS84 as the datum.

With today's technology, there is no specific advantage to keep your vector data in a custom projection. 6 decimal points are enough to have meter level accuracy, and you aren't going to need any more. Projection on demand is fast enough in today's world; And you have the advantage of being compatible with most global sources like Satellite Imagery and GPS devices etc.

You shouldn't use a UTM zone, since India is covered by several zones, and big states like AP & MP themselves are covered by several UTM zones.

If you are dealing with any Governemt body, do note that you need to follow the NNRMS standards given in the NNRMS document. While the document clearly states (page 47 section 66.4) that you should store the data in Geographic Coordinate system, all government organizations that I have worked with, store even the vector data in the national or state projections.

If you are digitizing from SOI TopoSheets, It is even more complicated. Firstly, many experts believe that it is not legal to scan and digitize SOI TopoSheets. Secondly these toposheets are in a poly-conic projection, based on the Everest Spheroid & Modified Everest Datum. The coordinates on these maps are shifted quite a bit when compared to coordinates in the WGS84 datum. Hence you need to take care of this datum transformation.

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WGS84 UTM44N EPSG:32644 is the suiltable geographical coordinate systems and projected coordinate system for India. Any further doubt refer to this :

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We're looking for long answers that provide some explanation and context. Don't just give a one-line answer; explain why your answer is right, ideally with citations. Answers that don't include explanations may be removed.

Please don't suggest one specific UTM Zone for India. India Stretches from UTM 42 No to UTM 47 N – Devdatta Tengshe Sep 19 '13 at 11:03
Ya but the link I had attached covers all between 42 to 47 nN UTM zones .I really cant understand for which part of India he is asking so only just given an example and attached a link to follow...........@DevdattaTengshe – Arun Sep 19 '13 at 11:09
Please check your link. EPSG 32644 is only for UTM 44N – Devdatta Tengshe Sep 19 '13 at 11:11
It is also a question of what he wants. A spatial database should be in WGS84, I agree, but if he wants to draw a map for whole India, a projection of the central UTM 43N or UTM44N looks best. – AndreJ Sep 19 '13 at 11:13
In ArcGIS, you could use UTM 44 North for the entire country, but you shouldn't because the distortions are quite bad. A conic projection like Albers (equal area) or Lambert (conformal) or possibly Lambert azimuthal would be better. Anything will be custom in ArcGIS. – mkennedy Sep 19 '13 at 17:04

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