While I understand that this may be off topic to an extent, I am in a bit of a bind and could use some help directing my thought process and research.
I have little programming background aside from:
1) Scripting in a language similar to C
2) Practical use of Python for use in geoprocessing with ArcGIS
This has worked just fine for me so far, but there appears to be a need for me to move into a .NET-based language so that I can start making use of the tools exposed in ArcObjects that ESRI has not yet made available through Python. A decision is being made by my management (with some direction from me) on whether the company should move forward and create a standard for coding in ArcObjects that is aimed at using VB or C#. The main considerations (since I am the only person who will be taking part in this) are future extendability, "safety" of code, and readability. Most of these concerns appear to be things that can be dealt with in the writing of the code as opposed to the language itself, but I don't know enough to be certain.
I've read an article or two comparing C# to VB in terms of .NET, but I would like to ask for further reasoning to consider when deciding on one language over another for a person of my background. What are the most important things to keep in mind when choosing which of the two languages to begin study in for use with ArcObjects?
Sorry if this is too verbose! I simply want my need to be understood.
EDIT: Responses have been great. I went with Dan's answer since it covered all the ground I asked about and went the extra step to point me at IPython.