Is there a way (preferably in Excel) to calculate the distance (based on lat, lon) between two lists of points? My end goal would be, for example, to have a list of Starbucks and a list of McDonald's, and then show the nearest neighbor, if you will.
Given a list of geographic coordinate pairs, you can implement the Haversine formula directly in Excel.
The simplest way to use this (or a more accurate, but I think it's not your case) formula consists into press
A more accurate way is to use Vicenty's formula. It is based on an ellipsoid instead of a sphere. However, the previous answer will do the job if you work in a city (differences can be neglected in your case). I've found an excel vb code here just in case.
Note that if you work in a city, using "bird flight" distances could be misleading. It would be better to use network distances. A compromise is to use "Manhattan distance"