A reference framework consisting of a set of points, lines, and/or surfaces, and a set of rules, used to define the positions of points in space in either two or three dimensions.

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143
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11answers
41k views
45
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7answers
4k views

What strategies, criteria, or rules to use for selecting coordinate systems?

What strategies, criteria, or rules do you use for selecting coordinate systems for (a) storing, (b) analyzing, and (c) displaying GIS data? (I humbly offer my reply to a related question ...
43
votes
3answers
53k views

Algorithm for offsetting a latitude/longitude by some amount of meters

I'm looking for an algorithm which when given a latitude and longitude pair and a vector translation in meters in Cartesian coordinates (x,y) would give me a new coordinate. Sort of like a reverse ...
38
votes
4answers
11k views

LatLon or LonLat, what's the “right” way to display coordinates and inputs?

I'm trying to get a sense if this is an issue for others or every input/output should be labeled so user is not confused and just go with it? I think almost everyone pronounces it as "LatLon". Who ...
35
votes
3answers
32k views

What is the difference between WGS84 and EPSG4326?

What is the difference between WGS 84 and EPSG 4326? It seems like for a given dataset it might be both WGS 84 and EPSG 4326.
33
votes
11answers
14k views

Identifying Coordinate System of Shapefile when Unknown?

I have a Shapefile but its coordinate system is Unknown, and there is no *.prj file. How I can identify it now? Are there any tools that could help?
30
votes
3answers
128k views

Does Y mean latitude and X mean longitude in every GIS software?

Now it's been 3 days I am using Mapinfo and it has Y as latitude and X as longitude. Is that the same case for all mapping software? As for any country their respective value is multiple of 1 or -1. ...
28
votes
2answers
3k views

How accurate is approximating the Earth as a sphere?

What level of error do I encounter when approximating the earth as a sphere? Specifically, when dealing with the location of points and, for example, the great circle distances between them. Are ...
24
votes
3answers
26k views

Layers with same coordinate system should align/overlap but do not?

I put 4 different layers into my ArcMap document, but only one of them will show up on the map! I should be seeing the other 3 layers as well. When I do a Zoom to layer, I can see one layer, but I ...
22
votes
5answers
30k views

Get list of coordinates for points in a layer?

I've got a layer in QGIS that is comprised of points. Its attribute table doesn't have (show) the corresponding x and y coordinates for each point. Is there a way for me to extract a list of ...
22
votes
1answer
7k views

Is WGS84 itself a Coordinate Reference System?

I was wondering the difference between WGS84 and EPSG:4326 (see this). Can then WGS84 on its own be defined as a Coordinate Reference System? Or is it just a datum so that a Coordinate System must ...
22
votes
3answers
2k views

What was the rationale for the non-standard UTM zones near Norway?

UTM zones 30V, 31V, 32V, 31X, 33X, 35X, and 37X do not line up with the rest of the UTM zone grid. Why was this allowed? According to Wikipedia, UTM was developed by the U.S. Army Corps of ...
20
votes
6answers
16k views

Defining projections for multiple shapefiles in ArcMap?

I have over 100 shape files that don't have .prj file and thus when I bring them into ArcMap 10 they show the coordinate system as unknown. I know all of the shape files coordinate system is GCS WGS ...
20
votes
6answers
5k views

How do you best deal with data that spreads across UTM Zones?

I have data that spreads across two UTM Zones GDA/MGA94 UTM Zone 55 and 56. I have layers such as a cadastre, roads, pipelines etc where I want to store measurements like lengths and areas in metres ...
20
votes
1answer
2k views

What is most accurate coordinate system for calculating areas of polygons?

I have multiple polygons, all located offshore around the UK. I am trying to calculate the areas of these polygons in square kilometres, without splitting them by UTM zone. Is it possible to do this ...
19
votes
7answers
1k views

Spatial reference for dummies?

Can anyone recommend a good reference or tutorial that explains the principles of spatial references, projections, and coordinate systems? We are a small team of programmers working with GIS ...
17
votes
8answers
13k views

ArcCatalog complains that spatial references don't match between a feature dataset and a feature class that have the same coordinate system?

I have a feature dataset that is using the GCS_WGS_1984 as the geographic coordinate system. It includes a few feature classes. This feature dataset is itself in a file geodatabase that contains a ...
16
votes
3answers
3k views

Do ArcGIS SpatialReference object factory codes correspond with EPSG numbers?

I've got a project where I'm reading in geometry objects from text files to put them in ArcSDE. These geometry objects have an associated EPSG code, and I'm looking for a way to ensure they're in the ...
14
votes
2answers
3k views

Which function for creating a POINT in PostGIS?

When defining a Point in PostGIS, when do you decide to use which of the following? ST_SetSRID(ST_MakePoint(lon,lat),4326) ST_SetSRID(ST_Point(long,lat),4326) ST_SetSRID(ST_GeomFromText('POINT(lon ...
13
votes
1answer
8k views

Projecting sp objects in R

I have a number of shapefiles in different CRSs (mostly WGS84 lat/lon) that I'd like to transform into a common projectly (likely Albers Equal Area Conic, but I may ask for help on choosing in another ...
13
votes
3answers
5k views

Lon/lat transformation

First I should clarify I don't have previous experience with the field, so I don't know the technical terminology. My question is as follows: I have two weather datasets: The first one has the ...
13
votes
1answer
10k views

Which is correct projection in ArcGIS Server for EPSG:3857/900913?

I want to publish a mapservice in ArcGIS server, which will be overlayed on Google Maps or Bing Maps. For this, the Map Service needs to be in EPSG:3857/900913. The Google Maps projection is supposed ...
13
votes
1answer
559 views

Creating nanoscale DEM with GDAL

A bit of a strange question perhaps, but let me give you a breif explanation of the background before my actual questions: Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a method that, in short (and to my limited ...
11
votes
7answers
407 views

Public reprojection services

Are there any free public services where I can send one point in a coordsystem and it returns the point reprojected in a specified coordinate system? I will not be doing many requests, for now it is ...
11
votes
3answers
4k views

Official term for latitude longitude coordinate system?

May I know what is the correct specific term for latitude longitude coordinate system? With "Geographic Coordinate", it seems to be a general term for every other system?
11
votes
2answers
4k views

Is there any online tool for converting coordinates between different EPSG?

Every time I want to do conversion, I need to get into the console to run proj.4. Is there any online tools for converting coordinates between different EPSG?
11
votes
2answers
2k views

ArcGIS Length and Area Calculation Scenarios

Trying to get a handle on how length and area are calculated in different scenarios in ArcGIS. I don't know why I can't find a answer on the feature class fields, but I can't find a precise answer, ...
11
votes
1answer
963 views

How to define Winkel Tripel in proj 4.8.0?

I have QGIS with proj 4.8.0 installed. I'd like to add Winkel Tripel projection which seems to be defined as +proj=wintri But that definition string does not work. Is this a bug in my proj version, ...
10
votes
10answers
8k views

Batch convert lat longs to UTM?

I've got a .csv file that contains a long list of latitude and longitude points. Is there an efficient way to batch convert the list into a projected UTM coordinate system? Thanks.
10
votes
2answers
2k views

How can I convert geomagnetic coordinates to geographic coordinates without doing the math myself?

I have some data which are in geomagnetic coordinates; that is, they are latitude and longitude, but in reference to the magnetic north pole in Canada rather than the geographic north pole. As you ...
10
votes
3answers
2k views

Is the GEO tag for QR codes lat/long or long/lat

I just found out that you can add a geographic component to a QR code. I also just found you can create one on the Google Chart API using this: ...
10
votes
0answers
451 views

Geotransformation for polar stereographic?

I'm currently working to import CANGRID climate data (provided as Surfer Grid ascii, ".grd" files) into ArcGIS. The grid is 95 rows by 125 columns in size.Metadata provides lat/lon of origin (lower ...
9
votes
3answers
6k views

How to convert projected coordinates to lat/lon using Python?

I assume this is a basic question but I can't seem to find or recognize the solution. This site returns Point: X: -11705274.6374 Y: 4826473.6922 when you searching with the first key value of 000090 ...
9
votes
3answers
6k views

How does ArcGIS compute the distance between two points with a non-equidistant projection?

This is a follow-up question to my previous one, Can you suggest some well-written introductory texts about coordinate system projections? Let's assume I'm working with the CH1903 map projection, ...
9
votes
1answer
4k views

GDAL/Python: How do I get coordinate system name from SpatialReference?

In Python, using GDAL, I've extracted a raster's projection as a WKT string as follows: wkt = dataset.GetProjection() # wkt is ...
9
votes
2answers
1k views

why do people use geometry to represent geography?

Historically I've mainly worked with simple latitude and longitude coordinates in a SQL Server. I stored them as a geography datatype in SQL Server, and rendered them on a variety of displays ...
9
votes
2answers
3k views

Measuring distance in spherical Mercator vs zoned UTM

I've got points in WGS84 lat/long and I'd like to measure "small" (less than say 5km) distances between them. I can use the haversine formula from http://www.movable-type.co.uk/scripts/latlong.html ...
9
votes
2answers
1k views

Why are heatmaps on qgis 2.8.1 produced in the wrong CRS?

I noticed that the heatmap calculation on the new upgrade version of qgis is given the raster map without any coordinate system. Have you got the same problem?
9
votes
1answer
1k views

How can I see the coordinate transformation parameters in QGIS?

How can I see (and edit if possible) the transformation method and parameters used by QGIS for "on-the-fly" transformation, and then for saving data in another CRS? Like in ArcGIS? Here is the ...
9
votes
1answer
591 views

Using customized Coordinate System for Archaeological site data

I don't know so much about coordinate systems... In my office we use to deal with spatial data coming from archaeological sites. Each site has its own x-y-z coordinate system (GCS). Three simple ...
9
votes
2answers
717 views

What happens to feature class when importing to feature dataset?

I am creating a model that needs to ensure that all input datasets end up in the same coordinate system (among other things). I was originally going to batch project all of the datasets whether they ...
9
votes
1answer
2k views

How to compute the bounding box of multiple layers in lat/long?

I am writing an application to performance test all kinds of map services, primarily AGS 9.x, AGS 10, and WMS 1.x. Part of the application involves generating random bounding boxes for individual ...
9
votes
0answers
164 views

How do ESRI and QGIS calculate scale values of geographic projections? [closed]

Does anyone know how (from which location) scale values are calculated in ESRI products and QGIS for geographic projections? The only thing I've noticed is that QGIS is changing scales when you pan ...
8
votes
6answers
2k views

Looking for a tool to convert DD to DMS

I am looking for either an online tool or one that I can download to convert DD to DMS. For example, I want to convert from: 41.590833, -93.620833 to 41° 35′ 27″ N, 93° 37′ 15″ W ... Those are the ...
8
votes
5answers
2k views

What are the advantages / disadvantages of reporting location in decimal degrees versus degree min sec?

Many scientific articles report site location in units of degree/min/sec, but for analysis in with non-GIS software, it is easier to use decimal degrees. Is there a reason for degrees / min / sec to ...
8
votes
3answers
11k views

Coordinate System Transformation in ArcMap

For the Data Frame Properties on a map in ArcMap, what is the difference between selecting a new coordinate system and using a Transformation?
8
votes
3answers
1k views

Distance measurements across UTM zones: use geographic or planar approaches?

I have a survey grid spread across 3 UTM zones (36N, 36S, 37S). I want to find the nearest (or shortest) distances of the centroids of these grids to roads and various points between. It seems like ...
8
votes
2answers
482 views

How to get a “classical” globe projection

I have a shapefile of the world continents in EPSG 4326. To what reference system do I have to reproject my file to get a projecting like this globe below?
8
votes
2answers
540 views

Problem with plotting map in R

While plotting the gadm map of Russia in R, I have a problem at the 180 degree meridian, where part of the Russian region is plotted separately. You can see it on the plot using the following code ...
8
votes
1answer
4k views

getExtent() in OpenLayers returns strange values

I'm trying to get the bounding box of the map area displayed by OpenLayers. I tried to use map.getExtent() because it should be exactly what I need, but the returned values are "strange": For ...