A reference framework consisting of a set of points, lines, and/or surfaces, and a set of rules, used to define the positions of points in space in either two or three dimensions.

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24
votes
3answers
25k views

Layers with same coordinate system should align/overlap but do not?

I put 4 different layers into my ArcMap document, but only one of them will show up on the map! I should be seeing the other 3 layers as well. When I do a Zoom to layer, I can see one layer, but I ...
33
votes
11answers
14k views

Identifying Coordinate System of Shapefile when Unknown?

I have a Shapefile but its coordinate system is Unknown, and there is no *.prj file. How I can identify it now? Are there any tools that could help?
143
votes
11answers
41k views
42
votes
3answers
53k views

Algorithm for offsetting a latitude/longitude by some amount of meters

I'm looking for an algorithm which when given a latitude and longitude pair and a vector translation in meters in Cartesian coordinates (x,y) would give me a new coordinate. Sort of like a reverse ...
22
votes
5answers
30k views

Get list of coordinates for points in a layer?

I've got a layer in QGIS that is comprised of points. Its attribute table doesn't have (show) the corresponding x and y coordinates for each point. Is there a way for me to extract a list of ...
28
votes
2answers
3k views

How accurate is approximating the Earth as a sphere?

What level of error do I encounter when approximating the earth as a sphere? Specifically, when dealing with the location of points and, for example, the great circle distances between them. Are ...
20
votes
1answer
2k views

What is most accurate coordinate system for calculating areas of polygons?

I have multiple polygons, all located offshore around the UK. I am trying to calculate the areas of these polygons in square kilometres, without splitting them by UTM zone. Is it possible to do this ...
44
votes
7answers
4k views

What strategies, criteria, or rules to use for selecting coordinate systems?

What strategies, criteria, or rules do you use for selecting coordinate systems for (a) storing, (b) analyzing, and (c) displaying GIS data? (I humbly offer my reply to a related question ...
9
votes
1answer
589 views

Using customized Coordinate System for Archaeological site data

I don't know so much about coordinate systems... In my office we use to deal with spatial data coming from archaeological sites. Each site has its own x-y-z coordinate system (GCS). Three simple ...
9
votes
2answers
1k views

Why are heatmaps on qgis 2.8.1 produced in the wrong CRS?

I noticed that the heatmap calculation on the new upgrade version of qgis is given the raster map without any coordinate system. Have you got the same problem?
5
votes
1answer
890 views

Raster incorrectly reprojected to OSGB(27700)

Ubuntu 12.04, QGIS 1.8.0, GDAL/OGR 1.7.3, GEOS 3.2.2 Open a Spatialite db with OS Mastermap poly layer (EPSG:27700); Add OpenLayers Plugin (1.0) from QGIS offical repository; Add a Google Satellite ...
5
votes
2answers
959 views

Identify the latitudinal and longitudinal point directly beneath an object in space

Given the azimuth and altitude / latitude and longitude from the observer to the satellite, how can I accurately find the latitude and longitude of the point of intersection directly under the ...
38
votes
4answers
11k views

LatLon or LonLat, what's the “right” way to display coordinates and inputs?

I'm trying to get a sense if this is an issue for others or every input/output should be labeled so user is not confused and just go with it? I think almost everyone pronounces it as "LatLon". Who ...
14
votes
2answers
3k views

Which function for creating a POINT in PostGIS?

When defining a Point in PostGIS, when do you decide to use which of the following? ST_SetSRID(ST_MakePoint(lon,lat),4326) ST_SetSRID(ST_Point(long,lat),4326) ST_SetSRID(ST_GeomFromText('POINT(lon ...
22
votes
1answer
7k views

Is WGS84 itself a Coordinate Reference System?

I was wondering the difference between WGS84 and EPSG:4326 (see this). Can then WGS84 on its own be defined as a Coordinate Reference System? Or is it just a datum so that a Coordinate System must ...
35
votes
3answers
32k views

What is the difference between WGS84 and EPSG4326?

What is the difference between WGS 84 and EPSG 4326? It seems like for a given dataset it might be both WGS 84 and EPSG 4326.
10
votes
2answers
2k views

How can I convert geomagnetic coordinates to geographic coordinates without doing the math myself?

I have some data which are in geomagnetic coordinates; that is, they are latitude and longitude, but in reference to the magnetic north pole in Canada rather than the geographic north pole. As you ...
9
votes
1answer
2k views

How to compute the bounding box of multiple layers in lat/long?

I am writing an application to performance test all kinds of map services, primarily AGS 9.x, AGS 10, and WMS 1.x. Part of the application involves generating random bounding boxes for individual ...
2
votes
3answers
2k views

Local Coordinate to Geocentric

The ultimate question, I need a transformation matrix to take a point in local space representing a roughly 500m x 500m place in New Mexico centered at -108.619987456 long 36.234600064 lat. The final ...
7
votes
1answer
17k views

QGIS - Change unit of measure from degrees to meters

I am running QGIS 1.7.0 on windows, and I donwloaded a shapefile of census block group boundaries from TIGER. This file appears to be in the WGS 84 coordinate system, and when I open it in QGIS the ...
7
votes
1answer
2k views

Difference between Geographic-3D and Geocentric CRS

I'll start with the OGP definitions: Geographic. A coordinate reference system based on a geodetic datum and using an ellipsoidal (including spherical) model of the Earth. This provides an accurate ...
3
votes
1answer
294 views

QGIS display does not reflect projection

I have slight experience with ArcGIS, but am new to QGIS. I'm trying to set the projection of my map, and I understand that this is done by altering the CRS (coordinate reference system) of each ...
13
votes
1answer
8k views

Projecting sp objects in R

I have a number of shapefiles in different CRSs (mostly WGS84 lat/lon) that I'd like to transform into a common projectly (likely Albers Equal Area Conic, but I may ask for help on choosing in another ...
16
votes
3answers
3k views

Do ArcGIS SpatialReference object factory codes correspond with EPSG numbers?

I've got a project where I'm reading in geometry objects from text files to put them in ArcSDE. These geometry objects have an associated EPSG code, and I'm looking for a way to ensure they're in the ...
6
votes
1answer
2k views

Computing UTM Zone from lat/long point?

I am trying to convert a latlong point to UTM. To define UTM projection, I need to calculate zone for the point. I am trying to figure out the best way to do this. One way to do this would be ...
9
votes
3answers
6k views

How does ArcGIS compute the distance between two points with a non-equidistant projection?

This is a follow-up question to my previous one, Can you suggest some well-written introductory texts about coordinate system projections? Let's assume I'm working with the CH1903 map projection, ...
8
votes
6answers
2k views

Looking for a tool to convert DD to DMS

I am looking for either an online tool or one that I can download to convert DD to DMS. For example, I want to convert from: 41.590833, -93.620833 to 41° 35′ 27″ N, 93° 37′ 15″ W ... Those are the ...
5
votes
3answers
3k views

Why some coordinate systems define x-axis as northings and some as easting?

The definition of north and east are pretty straight forward to grasp but only becomes difficult when used interchangably with x-y coordinates which have varying definitions for the direction of the ...
5
votes
1answer
1k views

Which projected coordinate system should be used for mapping the US?

I'm on a project requires integrating data for all states in the US. It means I have two roadway datasets and I'm going to assign the attributes of roadways in one dataset to the same roadways in the ...
3
votes
2answers
119 views

CRS reprojection

I am trying to change the CRS of one shapefile that is originally in NAD27 to WGS84 in Qgis 2.6. When I proceed to make the change, I still continue to see the file in UTM coordinates... I've tried to ...
2
votes
2answers
3k views

Problems with scale bar units in qgis composer

I apologize in advance for again bringing the topic up, I've searched for answers in other posts but couldn't find anything helpful. I fight a personal little war with the scale bar of the QGIS ...
7
votes
2answers
3k views

How is EPSG:4326 data 'projected' in a 2D map?

I like to think I'm relatively well-versed in datums, projections, and coordinate reference systems, so if this is a stupid question I will suffer eternal shame. OpenStreetMap data is stored in WGS84 ...
5
votes
4answers
5k views

What is the projection of WGS84 in GIS software?

WGS84 is a reference ellipsoid that determines coordinates of every point on Earth using latitude, longitude and height about the its surface. This ellipsoid is often used as a base to make maps. ...
7
votes
3answers
3k views

Writing world file when exporting TIFF using ArcPy Mapping?

According to documentation, the options are: Syntax ExportToTIFF (map_document, out_tiff, {data_frame}, {df_export_width}, {df_export_height}, {resolution}, {world_file}, {color_mode}, ...
4
votes
2answers
2k views

Misplaced Google Maps with OpenLayers plugin in QGIS?

I was using Google Maps with OpenLayers plugin in QGIS with my vector layer with projection EPSG:4326 with google map projection EPSG:3857 and "on the fly" transformation enabled. It was matching ...
10
votes
10answers
8k views

Batch convert lat longs to UTM?

I've got a .csv file that contains a long list of latitude and longitude points. Is there an efficient way to batch convert the list into a projected UTM coordinate system? Thanks.
3
votes
1answer
177 views

Help with “projected XY to screen xy” conversion algorithm?

I'm trying to convert coordinates from any given coordinate system (be they the coordinates of a graph figure or a map, meaning they can span across both negative and positive values across any of the ...
3
votes
1answer
83 views

Help identifying a coordinate system

I have some "latitude" and "longitude" data that describes the Silverstone motor racing circuit in the UK. The coordinates look something like this: latitude longitude +03124.27986 +00061.07652 ...
3
votes
2answers
4k views

Meridian convergence. True north, magnetic north and grid north

I'm having difficulty wrapping my mind around meridian convergence, the horizontal angular distance between true north and grid north. Say I want to determine if a feature lies to the east or west ...
3
votes
1answer
5k views

Lat/Lon/Alt to spherical or cartesian coordinates

On my previous question, it was advised I convert lat/lon/altitude to spherical or Cartesian coordinates. I'm not working near the poles and it would be safe to assume a spherical earth. What would be ...
2
votes
1answer
193 views

Difference between NAD83 Indiana SPW in QGIS and ArcGIS for Desktop?

It seems ESRI and QGIS don't have the same definition for my most commonly used projection, NAD83 StatePlane Indiana West (US ft). When I create data in an ESRI product the projection shows up in ...
1
vote
3answers
72 views

Project only required shapefiles in folder

I have 8 shapefiles in a folder with shapefile 1 and 8 in the same projection and the others (shapefile 2-7) if different projections. Is there a way to use python to use shapefile 1 as the ...
1
vote
2answers
526 views

Predefined Coordinate Systems missing in QGIS 2

in QGis 1.8 were lots of predefined coordinate systems (national projections). Where have they all gone in qgis 2.0? I specifically need the Gauß-Krüger-Projections Zone 1 to 5. Is there any plugin ...
1
vote
2answers
864 views

QGIS layers no longer overlay when Enable 'on the fly' CRS transformation is on

My QGIS project has two layers - one retrieved from GADM (administrative boundaries of Guinea Bissau) and another one of the villages collected in the field using GPS Decimal Degrees - D.ddddd. If I ...
-2
votes
1answer
82 views

How to Draw/plot or identify in GoogleMaps with below PointData

How to Draw/plot or identify in GoogleMaps with below PointData? Below are the points generated from spatial cadastre software. PointName Xpos Ypos _1 341.0926 527.9615 _10 669.1454 ...
19
votes
7answers
1k views

Spatial reference for dummies?

Can anyone recommend a good reference or tutorial that explains the principles of spatial references, projections, and coordinate systems? We are a small team of programmers working with GIS ...
30
votes
3answers
128k views

Does Y mean latitude and X mean longitude in every GIS software?

Now it's been 3 days I am using Mapinfo and it has Y as latitude and X as longitude. Is that the same case for all mapping software? As for any country their respective value is multiple of 1 or -1. ...
9
votes
3answers
6k views

How to convert projected coordinates to lat/lon using Python?

I assume this is a basic question but I can't seem to find or recognize the solution. This site returns Point: X: -11705274.6374 Y: 4826473.6922 when you searching with the first key value of 000090 ...
7
votes
3answers
8k views

Geodetic Coordinates And Latitude, Longitude

Would it right to say that geodetic coordinates (phi & lambda) are the same as latitude & longitude?
13
votes
1answer
10k views

Which is correct projection in ArcGIS Server for EPSG:3857/900913?

I want to publish a mapservice in ArcGIS server, which will be overlayed on Google Maps or Bing Maps. For this, the Map Service needs to be in EPSG:3857/900913. The Google Maps projection is supposed ...