A reference framework consisting of a set of points, lines, and/or surfaces, and a set of rules, used to define the positions of points in space in either two or three dimensions.

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37
votes
3answers
42k views

Layers with same coordinate system should align/overlap but do not?

I put 4 different layers into my ArcMap document, but only one of them will show up on the map! I should be seeing the other 3 layers as well. When I do a Zoom to layer, I can see one layer, but I ...
48
votes
11answers
22k views

Identifying Coordinate System of Shapefile when Unknown?

I have a Shapefile but its coordinate system is Unknown, and there is no *.prj file. How I can identify it now? Are there any tools that could help?
28
votes
1answer
3k views

Coordinate system for calculating areas of polygons accurately?

I have multiple polygons, all located offshore around the UK. I am trying to calculate the areas of these polygons in square kilometres, without splitting them by UTM zone. Is it possible to do this ...
173
votes
11answers
62k views
57
votes
3answers
78k views

Algorithm for offsetting a latitude/longitude by some amount of meters

I'm looking for an algorithm which when given a latitude and longitude pair and a vector translation in meters in Cartesian coordinates (x,y) would give me a new coordinate. Sort of like a reverse ...
29
votes
5answers
44k views

Get list of coordinates for points in a layer?

I've got a layer in QGIS that is comprised of points. Its attribute table doesn't have (show) the corresponding x and y coordinates for each point. Is there a way for me to extract a list of ...
40
votes
2answers
5k views

How accurate is approximating the Earth as a sphere?

What level of error do I encounter when approximating the earth as a sphere? Specifically, when dealing with the location of points and, for example, the great circle distances between them. Are ...
10
votes
1answer
1k views

Using customized Coordinate System for Archaeological site data

I don't know so much about coordinate systems... In my office we use to deal with spatial data coming from archaeological sites. Each site has its own x-y-z coordinate system (GCS). Three simple ...
51
votes
7answers
5k views

What strategies, criteria, or rules to use for selecting coordinate systems?

What strategies, criteria, or rules do you use for selecting coordinate systems for (a) storing, (b) analyzing, and (c) displaying GIS data? (I humbly offer my reply to a related question ...
10
votes
2answers
2k views

Why are heatmaps on qgis 2.8.1 produced in the wrong CRS?

I noticed that the heatmap calculation on the new upgrade version of qgis is given the raster map without any coordinate system. Have you got the same problem?
5
votes
1answer
1k views

Raster incorrectly reprojected to OSGB(27700)

Ubuntu 12.04, QGIS 1.8.0, GDAL/OGR 1.7.3, GEOS 3.2.2 Open a Spatialite db with OS Mastermap poly layer (EPSG:27700); Add OpenLayers Plugin (1.0) from QGIS offical repository; Add a Google Satellite ...
2
votes
3answers
3k views

Local Coordinate to Geocentric

The ultimate question, I need a transformation matrix to take a point in local space representing a roughly 500m x 500m place in New Mexico centered at -108.619987456 long 36.234600064 lat. The final ...
17
votes
2answers
5k views

Which function for creating a POINT in PostGIS?

When defining a Point in PostGIS, when do you decide to use which of the following? ST_SetSRID(ST_MakePoint(lon,lat),4326) ST_SetSRID(ST_Point(long,lat),4326) ST_SetSRID(ST_GeomFromText('POINT(lon ...
9
votes
1answer
2k views

How to compute the bounding box of multiple layers in lat/long?

I am writing an application to performance test all kinds of map services, primarily AGS 9.x, AGS 10, and WMS 1.x. Part of the application involves generating random bounding boxes for individual ...
49
votes
4answers
18k views

LatLon or LonLat, what's the “right” way to display coordinates and inputs?

I'm trying to get a sense if this is an issue for others or every input/output should be labeled so user is not confused and just go with it? I think almost everyone pronounces it as "LatLon". Who ...
57
votes
3answers
51k views

What is the difference between WGS84 and EPSG4326?

What is the difference between WGS 84 and EPSG 4326? It seems like for a given dataset it might be both WGS 84 and EPSG 4326.
7
votes
1answer
25k views

How to change the unit of measure from degrees to meters in QGIS?

I am running QGIS 1.7.0 on windows, and I donwloaded a shapefile of census block group boundaries from TIGER. This file appears to be in the WGS 84 coordinate system, and when I open it in QGIS the ...
16
votes
4answers
16k views

How to convert projected coordinates to lat/lon using Python?

I assume this is a basic question but I can't seem to find or recognize the solution. This site returns Point: X: -11705274.6374 Y: 4826473.6922 when you searching with the first key value of 000090 ...
25
votes
3answers
10k views

Reprojecting all geometries in PostGIS table?

I created a spatial table with SRID:4326. Now I want to change total projection to SRID:32644 into a new table. The old table should remain unchanged.
10
votes
2answers
2k views

How can I convert geomagnetic coordinates to geographic coordinates without doing the math myself?

I have some data which are in geomagnetic coordinates; that is, they are latitude and longitude, but in reference to the magnetic north pole in Canada rather than the geographic north pole. As you ...
20
votes
6answers
6k views

Dealing with data that spreads across UTM Zones?

I have data that spreads across two UTM Zones GDA/MGA94 UTM Zone 55 and 56. I have layers such as a cadastre, roads, pipelines etc where I want to store measurements like lengths and areas in metres ...
10
votes
3answers
7k views

How does ArcGIS compute the distance between two points with a non-equidistant projection?

This is a follow-up question to my previous one, Can you suggest some well-written introductory texts about coordinate system projections? Let's assume I'm working with the CH1903 map projection, ...
26
votes
1answer
10k views

Is WGS84 itself a Coordinate Reference System?

I was wondering the difference between WGS84 and EPSG:4326 (see this). Can then WGS84 on its own be defined as a Coordinate Reference System? Or is it just a datum so that a Coordinate System must ...
12
votes
3answers
12k views

Geodetic Coordinates And Latitude, Longitude

Would it right to say that geodetic coordinates (phi & lambda) are the same as latitude & longitude?
6
votes
2answers
1k views

Identify the latitudinal and longitudinal point directly beneath an object in space

Given the azimuth and altitude / latitude and longitude from the observer to the satellite, how can I accurately find the latitude and longitude of the point of intersection directly under the ...
3
votes
1answer
461 views

QGIS display does not reflect projection

I have slight experience with ArcGIS, but am new to QGIS. I'm trying to set the projection of my map, and I understand that this is done by altering the CRS (coordinate reference system) of each ...
2
votes
2answers
4k views

Using scale bar units in QGIS composer?

I am using the scale bar of the QGIS composer (ver 1.8) and I don't understand how the whole thing works. Where can I set the units properly? The layers have idential CRS (WGS84), the settings for ...
15
votes
1answer
16k views

Projecting sp objects in R

I have a number of shapefiles in different CRSs (mostly WGS84 lat/lon) that I'd like to transform into a common projection (likely Albers Equal Area Conic, but I may ask for help on choosing in ...
18
votes
3answers
4k views

Do ArcGIS SpatialReference object factory codes correspond with EPSG numbers?

I've got a project where I'm reading in geometry objects from text files to put them in ArcSDE. These geometry objects have an associated EPSG code, and I'm looking for a way to ensure they're in the ...
7
votes
1answer
3k views

Computing UTM Zone from lat/long point?

I am trying to convert a latlong point to UTM. To define UTM projection, I need to calculate zone for the point. I am trying to figure out the best way to do this. One way to do this would be ...
5
votes
3answers
7k views

Why some coordinate systems define x-axis as northings and some as easting?

The definition of north and east are pretty straight forward to grasp but only becomes difficult when used interchangably with x-y coordinates which have varying definitions for the direction of the ...
7
votes
1answer
3k views

Difference between Geographic-3D and Geocentric CRS

I'll start with the OGP definitions: Geographic. A coordinate reference system based on a geodetic datum and using an ellipsoidal (including spherical) model of the Earth. This provides an accurate ...
6
votes
1answer
5k views

Which projected coordinate system should be used for mapping the US?

I'm on a project requires integrating data for all states in the US. It means I have two roadway datasets and I'm going to assign the attributes of roadways in one dataset to the same roadways in the ...
4
votes
1answer
4k views

Calculating distance scale factor by latitude for Mercator

This was really inconvenient topic to google out - so I'm asking for clarification, did I understood things correctly. I'm talking about measuring short distances in Mercator projection (3857). You ...
4
votes
1answer
5k views

How to calculate grid convergence (True North to Grid North)?

I would like to know how to calculate the grid convergence angle between True North and Grid North for UTM maps. I am using ArcGIS 10.0 (ArcView licence) and have used the Calculate Grid ...
16
votes
3answers
8k views

Lon/lat transformation

First I should clarify I don't have previous experience with the field, so I don't know the technical terminology. My question is as follows: I have two weather datasets: The first one has the ...
7
votes
2answers
4k views

How is EPSG:4326 data 'projected' in a 2D map?

I like to think I'm relatively well-versed in datums, projections, and coordinate reference systems, so if this is a stupid question I will suffer eternal shame. OpenStreetMap data is stored in WGS84 ...
5
votes
4answers
10k views

What is the projection of WGS84 in GIS software?

WGS84 is a reference ellipsoid that determines coordinates of every point on Earth using latitude, longitude and height about the its surface. This ellipsoid is often used as a base to make maps. ...
5
votes
2answers
1k views

How do I specify a CRS for a fictional game map in QGIS?

I am about to start playing a steampunk RPG game called The Iron Realm, which uses a fictional world map. I have recently started using QGIS v1.7 and have no real experience with GIS sysstems. I have ...
8
votes
6answers
3k views

Looking for a tool to convert DD to DMS

I am looking for either an online tool or one that I can download to convert DD to DMS. For example, I want to convert from: 41.590833, -93.620833 to 41° 35′ 27″ N, 93° 37′ 15″ W ... Those are the ...
8
votes
3answers
4k views

Writing world file when exporting TIFF using ArcPy Mapping?

According to documentation, the options are: Syntax ExportToTIFF (map_document, out_tiff, {data_frame}, {df_export_width}, {df_export_height}, {resolution}, {world_file}, {color_mode}, {...
5
votes
3answers
4k views

Misplaced Google Maps with OpenLayers plugin in QGIS?

I was using Google Maps with OpenLayers plugin in QGIS with my vector layer with projection EPSG:4326 with google map projection EPSG:3857 and "on the fly" transformation enabled. It was matching ...
5
votes
2answers
3k views

Best formula for calculating short distances in UTM?

I'm fairly new at calculating distances with precision, but I wanted to know what is the best formula for calculating short distances in UTM coordinates. The distances that I'am calculating are all ...
2
votes
1answer
382 views

How to translate coordinates on the earth

I am trying to translate coordinates. I have a set of coordinates for city A which I need to map to city B, given a point P1 in city A maps to P2 in city B. How do I do this? This problem would be ...
5
votes
1answer
2k views

Projected maps should but do not overlap in ArcMap? [duplicate]

I am very new to ArcGIS and trying to build a series of layers of data in ArcGIS 9.3.1 for a river catchment in Leicestershire, using data from several sources. All data covers at least the area of ...
3
votes
1answer
1k views

How to align (georeference) images using QGIS?

I'm completely new to all this. I'm trying to make a map of Han dynasty-era China for a mod for a game called Crusader Kings 2. I've downloaded QGIS and Natural Earth 2, but I need this image to ...
2
votes
1answer
2k views

Eastings/Northings OSGB36 Grid origin

Using this site, we can see that the (approximate) centre of Southampton, UK has OSGB coordinates of 441847,112279. However, looking at the UK grid, where each large square is (500 km)2, then these ...
11
votes
10answers
11k views

Batch convert lat longs to UTM?

I've got a .csv file that contains a long list of latitude and longitude points. Is there an efficient way to batch convert the list into a projected UTM coordinate system? Thanks.
5
votes
1answer
8k views

Lat/Lon/Alt to spherical or cartesian coordinates

On my previous question, it was advised I convert lat/lon/altitude to spherical or Cartesian coordinates. I'm not working near the poles and it would be safe to assume a spherical earth. What would be ...
4
votes
2answers
6k views

Meridian convergence. True north, magnetic north and grid north

I'm having difficulty wrapping my mind around meridian convergence, the horizontal angular distance between true north and grid north. Say I want to determine if a feature lies to the east or west ...