The information connecting numerical coordinates to actual locations on the earth.

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125
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12answers
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42
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7answers
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What strategies, criteria, or rules to use for selecting coordinate systems?

What strategies, criteria, or rules do you use for selecting coordinate systems for (a) storing, (b) analyzing, and (c) displaying GIS data? (I humbly offer my reply to a related question ...
24
votes
2answers
1k views

How accurate is approximating the Earth as a sphere?

What level of error do I encounter when approximating the earth as a sphere? Specifically, when dealing with the location of points and, for example, the great circle distances between them. Are ...
20
votes
1answer
4k views

Is WGS84 itself a Coordinate Reference System?

I was wondering the difference between WGS84 and EPSG:4326 (see this). Can then WGS84 on its own be defined as a Coordinate Reference System? Or is it just a datum so that a Coordinate System must ...
12
votes
1answer
481 views

How is a “conformal latitude” used in ellipsoidal stereographic projections?

At my work, I've been doing some maintenance on internal software that claims to implement a Stereographic projection whose formulas were copied from an old system a long time ago. From what I've ...
11
votes
3answers
323 views

Does Earth's magnetic field affect any datum definition?

I had an interview last week. One very interesting question was "does earth's magnetic field affect any datum definition?" I was sure it does not for geocentric datums. But I thought maybe the ...
11
votes
2answers
361 views

Huge differences between results for 7-param datum transform

I'm trying to transform a WGS84 lat/lon point 11d42'32.10629" E 5d12'56.75371" S in three different software packages (Proj4, GeoTrans and Leica GeoOffice) but I receive very big differences ...
9
votes
2answers
294 views

How do I perform a 3 parameter geotransformation and projection in Sql Server 2012?

I have a table with latitude longitude (NAD27) columns in it. I compute two other columns, X and Y, representing Web Mercator (WGS84) location. Currently I'm using a Arcmap to do this, by applying ...
8
votes
1answer
2k views

How to reproject a raster file in QGIS with datum transformation?

I want to reproject a tiff raster file from projection A (ETRS89/UTM Zone 32) to projection B (DHDN/Gauss-Kruger zone 2). The two projections have a different datum so I have to use a datum ...
8
votes
1answer
589 views

WGS72 to NAD83- how to find correct transformation

I am trying to get this raster file to convert from WGS72 to NAD83, but ArcMap10 doesn't appear to have the correct transformation listed. Where can I find this transformation, and/or how do I import ...
7
votes
1answer
2k views

Characteristics of different methods to convert ECEF to LLA

I'm trying to convert ECEF (Earth Centered, Earth Fixed) coordinates, which are defined in X,Y,Z, centered at (0,0,0) to LLA (Latitude, Longitude, Altitude). There are a couple of methods I found on ...
6
votes
2answers
4k views

What datum (reference ellipsoid) does Google Earth use?

What datum (reference ellipsoid) does Google Earth[1] use? I can't seem to find where Google Earth tells explicitly what datum they use. I need some sort of valid link. [1] The default free version ...
5
votes
2answers
5k views

Basic proj4 conversion UTM grid -> longlat and back

I'm a GIS novice, and am struggling to understand how to drive proj4 to accomplish what seems like a simple thing. I've googled for a couple of days, but everything I find seems to presuppose quite ...
5
votes
2answers
315 views

How to convert from one ellipsoid to another?

Introduction I have the following problem: I want to convert from WGS84 to "Anguilla 1957 / British West Indies Grid" (EPSG 2000). This seems to be straight-forward, as the transformation is a simple ...
5
votes
2answers
3k views

How do I use GDAL to convert from an arbitrary projection/datum into Equirectangular/WGS84?

I've been trying to use GDAL to convert from an arbitrary projection/datum into Equirectangular (aka Plate Caree, aka Equidistant Cylindrical, aka Geographic, aka Lat/Long) with WGS84 datum. All of ...
5
votes
1answer
100 views

Is there a way to determine the datum used when all you have is a lon and lat?

I have a dataset of US intersections from 2011 that I'm going to be using in a project together with data based in WGS84. Included in the CSV file is a variety of fields two of which are the lat and ...
5
votes
2answers
568 views

Why are the coordinates transformed with proj.4 off compared to http://valdemar.kms.dk/trf/?

I am trying to transform from epsg:4326 (wgs84) to epsg:25832 (utm ETRS89) using Proj.4. I am comparing the results with results from http://valdemar.kms.dk/trf/ . it seems like the results ...
5
votes
3answers
269 views

How to manually change from GPS (WGS84) to web based maps projection systems?

I have collected location point data and wish to display this on a web based map. It was collected using a Garmin Etrex GPS using the WGS84 datum. I wish to display the points using Ushahidi and have ...
4
votes
1answer
914 views

Determine the UTM zone/hemisphere in a particular datum

I'm using GDAL to convert coordinates from one system (geographic or projected) to another. Assume I want to convert geographic coordinates (latitude and longitude) in the WGS84 datum, to UTM ...
4
votes
3answers
3k views

Parameters for ED50 -> ETRS89/WGS84 seven-parameter transformation which are good for Denmark?

I am looking for parameters for a seven-parameter transformation (Rx, Ry, Rz, Tx, Ty, Tz, s) from ED50 UTM (zone 32U) to ETRS89 and/or WGS84. The best match I could find is here: ...
4
votes
2answers
77 views

towgs Definition for European Datum 1950

I am new to all things GIS so apologies for a basic questions. I am trying to specify the CRS of a climatic raster layer in R. It is an equal area projection based on Europe Equidistant Conic and the ...
4
votes
1answer
143 views

Error in Min. Bounding Geometry results

I'm getting consistent, weird results from using Minimum Bounding Geometry to make circle polygons. I'm not sure if a datum issue, but I'm leaning more towards something wrong with Minimum Bounding ...
4
votes
2answers
517 views

Converting Geocentric to Geodetic

I am only looking for a confirmation of what I believe to be true. If my explaination or conclusion is not accurate I would appreciate it if the reason can be explained to me. Background ...
3
votes
1answer
121 views

Why not measure elevation from the center of the earth?

In trying to understand Geoid vs Ellipsoid height, I ran across this page. One of the claims is: Zero elevation as defined by Spain is not the same zero elevation defined by Canada ...
3
votes
3answers
685 views

Vertical Datum Conversion Utilities

I have some data (points and rasters) that I would like to be able to convert to and from several vertical datums, including MLLW in coastal Florida. I would appreciate it if people could provide some ...
3
votes
3answers
368 views

“Horizontal” and vertical datums terminology

I have heard people referring to as a horizontal datum to models such as WGS84 and as a vertical datum to geoids. The former is primarily used for determining latitude and longitude but also the ...
3
votes
1answer
1k views

ArcGIS 10.0/10.1 - arcpy - automate projection tool with different datum or projection

I am getting stuck with a task that is slightly different from the posts I found so far on this same website. Assumption: all layers have a defined coordinate system Problem: I would like to ...
3
votes
1answer
1k views

How to perform datum transformation in ArcGIS server REST API exportmap

I have a ArcGIS server 10.0 mapcontext in one projection (swedish grid sweref99 TM) which uses its own datum, also named Sweref99 . When I use the REST API's map service export function I want to ...
3
votes
2answers
53 views

What is the closest CRS to “Meridiano de Greenwich”

I have a 1906 scanned map that I am trying to georeference in QGIS for Mac. The map has French and English lat-long, indicating them as either "Meridiano de Greenwich" or "Meridiano de Paris." I would ...
3
votes
2answers
207 views

GeometryServer > Project with Datum Transformation

I am facing the problem that when i use the extent in the url and i go from Amersfoort(WKID 4289) to WGS84(WKID 4326) that without the tranformation the point from longitude and latitude is placed ...
3
votes
2answers
545 views

Where is list of Geographic Transformations in ArcGIS, and their areas of applicability?

I have some data in Provisional South American Datum 1956, and I need to project it to Web Mercator with WGS84 as the datum. When I use the project tool in ArcGIS desktop, it requires a Geographic ...
3
votes
1answer
580 views

datum conflict when creating buffer in arcgis 10

A buffer I created successfully executed, but I received the following message: "WARNING 000632: Datum conflict between map and output." How can I fix this?
3
votes
0answers
324 views

How to set GDAL/cs2cs/proj to use NTv2 grid shift file when using EPSG codes?

I am using the GDAL API for Python for a script that takes only EPSG codes for inputs to specify source and target coordinate systems. While the cs2cs command seems to handle quite well ...
3
votes
1answer
287 views

What is the DNSC08 Mean sea surface model ellipsoid based on?

Does anyone know what Danish Space centre DNSC08 mean sea surface model uses as the reference ellipsoid? there is no meta data on the web site: ...
2
votes
3answers
127 views

What Danish position format is this?

I have been given a list of locations within Denmark. Most of the are in decimal degrees. However, some of the positions are in different formats and I can't figure them out. Does anyone recognize ...
2
votes
1answer
441 views

What is the process to calculate Helmert parameters?

I have some double points (the same points in 2 different datums). I'd like to calculate the Helmert parameters but I don't understand how. NOTE: I don't need software. I need an algorithm in order ...
2
votes
3answers
358 views

Datum transformations, do we use wgs84 as an intermediate common reference?

I was transforming some data the other day using the 7 param helmert transformation and it got me thinking. I have a set of transformation parameters, but these only describe the transformation from ...
2
votes
1answer
19 views

Figuring out what coordinates supposedly using 'NAD31 projection' refer to

I'm working with a GeoJSON file that contains sets of coordinates associated with street corners in the city of Montreal, Canada. The spec sheet of the API delivering those GeoJSON specifies that the ...
2
votes
1answer
28 views

IL East 1201 coordinate system

What is the difference between NAD CORS96 (Illinois East 1201) and the "normal NAD1983? We have data that was GPS'ed in CORS96, but data was imported into ArcMap using the "normal" NAD1983? What ...
2
votes
3answers
2k views

What Geotransformation (NAD27 to WGS84) should I use for Gulf of Mexico?

I'm working with datasets that are spread out across the northern part of the Gulf of Mexico, stored in NAD 27. I've been told the polygons shown above were obtained from BOEMRE (formerly known as ...
2
votes
1answer
55 views

Origin of the OSGB36 datum origin

Interpreting 'GIS' in the geographical information science sense, I have a historical question about the 1936 OSGB datum following the 1936-62 retriangulation of Great Britain - hopefully not too ...
2
votes
1answer
132 views

Geographic Transformations in Alaska Between NAD83 and WGS84

I have done a ton of research on the most accurate transformation to use in mainland Alaska to convert between the NAD83 and WGS84 datums, but I just can't seem to find a definitive answer. ArcMap ...
2
votes
1answer
99 views

What do different realizations of the same datum have in common?

Firstly, am I correct in assuming that the process of determining the shape and the size of the spheroid is independent from the process of determining the origin and the orientation? For example, ...
2
votes
2answers
230 views

Older British Geological Survey geology maps of Kenya; need complete projection information

I have several geologic maps of Kenya produced by the BGS circa 1993. Noted on each map is the following: Projection:-Transverse Mercator Spheriod:-Clarke 1880 (modified) That's great, but that ...
2
votes
1answer
330 views

OpenLayers and custom Proj4 Projection

ok so I'm a newbee in using OpenLayers. I try to map some planetary data on my webMap server using OpenLayers. I defined a proj4 projection as follow: Proj4js.defs["MYDATUM"] = "+proj=longlat ...
1
vote
1answer
350 views

How do you convert from GPS data in WGS84 to a GIS built in NAD27 in ArcGIS?

I have GPS data that has been recorded in Datum WGS84. The client has a GIS built in Datum NAD27. Having looked into the conversions online I would like to know how to do this rigorously with ...
1
vote
1answer
43 views

OpenLayers Projection and Datum Question

I had a conversation with a co worker that was asking about an OL map I am developing. She asked me what the 'projection' was and I said EPSG:4326. She didn't know what that means, so I said it's ...
1
vote
1answer
848 views

How to adjust online basemap to Arcmap

How can I adjust the online basemap imagery file to our existing ArcMap data. Below are steps I perform to add the basemap data. I Added basemap from "Add Data From GIS Online" in the file menu and ...
1
vote
2answers
2k views

What do I need to change to get scale bar units other than degrees?

Measurements done in QGIS on my project are done properly using whatever unit is set in: Settings > Options > Map Tools > Preferred measurements units but the scale bar decoration and scale bar in ...
1
vote
2answers
3k views

Converting from British National Grid (27700) to WGS84 (4326) to Web Mercator (102100)

I'm developing a web application that uses ESRI ArcGIS to display a map using JavaScript. We are holding all our data in MS SQL Server 2008 as Easting/Northing against the British National Grid. ...