A map projection is any method of representing the surface of a sphere or other three-dimensional body on a plane

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49
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EPSG 3857 or 4326 for GoogleMaps, OpenStreetMap and Leaflet

The discussion at What is the difference between WGS84 and EPSG4326? shows that 4326 is just the EPSG identifier of WGS84.. Wikipedia entries for Google Maps and OpenStreetMap shows that they both ...
46
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8answers
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One dimensional map of the world?

Bit of a strange question but hope this is OK to ask here. Has anyone heard of a '1-dimensional' projection of the world map - that is mapping all the points on the globe to a single line? I was ...
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What strategies, criteria, or rules to use for selecting coordinate systems?

What strategies, criteria, or rules do you use for selecting coordinate systems for (a) storing, (b) analyzing, and (c) displaying GIS data? (I humbly offer my reply to a related question ...
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Why has Web Mercator (auxiliary sphere) become the web map standard?

I understand what the difference is between the Web Mercator projection and Web Mercator Auxiliary Sphere (WMAS). I also understand that both Google and Esri have adopted this projection as their ...
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Why is the 'straight line' path across continent so curved?

This is the result of mapping the straight line path from a point in US to Poland using Distance Measurement Tool. Also, planes from Asia to US would travel almost over North Pole. Why is the path ...
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What is the current Web Mercator projection code?

The web mercator projection, popularised by Google Maps, seems to be given a new EPSG code every couple of years. EPSG:900913 (Google in calculator text) was an unofficial code EPSG:3785 - is the ...
33
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11answers
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Identifying Coordinate System of Shapefile when Unknown?

I have a Shapefile but its coordinate system is Unknown, and there is no *.prj file. How I can identify it now? Are there any tools that could help?
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What coordinate system should be used to store geography data for celestial coordinates?

I am doing an astronomy project. I want to have the information about our images stored in a spatially enabled database. This, I would think, should be a very easy special case for GIS functions ...
28
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What projection appeared in the NYTimes this morning?

Perhaps not as GIS related as some, but definitely about maps. Can anyone identify the map projection that appeared in the New York Times this morning? It's not one I've seen before, and a quick ...
26
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What's the difference between EPSG:4326 and EPSG:900913?

I am a bit confused on EPSG:4326 and EPSG:900913. I thought that they were both same. Though as I am placing my features over GMaps, which is EPSG:4326, I need to define the srsname of the WFS layer ...
24
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Layers with same coordinate system should align/overlap but do not?

I put 4 different layers into my ArcMap document, but only one of them will show up on the map! I should be seeing the other 3 layers as well. When I do a Zoom to layer, I can see one layer, but I ...
24
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Why are Data Projections relevant?

Sorry for my ignorance - especially after being in this area for a long time. Why is it useful to store data in unusual projections and datums? I understand the value of projections as output ...
23
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How does one calculate distortion on Equirectangular Projection?

I am trying to calculate distortion so I can distort overlaying text and forms to precisely match an image of an equirectangular projection. So, how does one calculate the distortion at a given ...
22
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6answers
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Shapefile PRJ to PostGIS SRID lookup table?

I was wondering if there is such a thing as an shapefile PRJ to PostGIS SRID lookup table? Something that can translate the most standard shapefile PRJ definitions into the likely SRID. When using ...
22
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3answers
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What was the rationale for the non-standard UTM zones near Norway?

UTM zones 30V, 31V, 32V, 31X, 33X, 35X, and 37X do not line up with the rest of the UTM zone grid. Why was this allowed? According to Wikipedia, UTM was developed by the U.S. Army Corps of ...
22
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1answer
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How to create an accurate Tissot Indicatrix?

A Tissot Indicatrix is useful method for communicating at a glance the kinds of distortion a given projection is prone to (in the figure below, each of the red circles occupies the same area). I've ...
21
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8answers
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How do I convert State Plane coordinates to latitude-longitude?

Given a specific state plane coordinate system (whether NAD27 or NAD83), are there any resources to convert to latitude-longitude?
20
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6answers
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Defining projections for multiple shapefiles in ArcMap?

I have over 100 shape files that don't have .prj file and thus when I bring them into ArcMap 10 they show the coordinate system as unknown. I know all of the shape files coordinate system is GCS WGS ...
20
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5answers
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Simplifying geometries (generalization)

What are the recommended ways of simplifying geometries? Keeping in mind projections, and simplifying state geometries for example. I've heard about converting to an 'equi-distant' projection that ...
20
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1answer
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How to define new custom projections in QGIS?

I'm trying to define a projection in QGIS. I want to add North America Albers Equal Area Conic. From the spatialreference site I copied the proj4 line: +proj=aea +lat_1=20 +lat_2=60 +lat_0=40 ...
20
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2answers
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What projections should I use to make my own Globe?

Searching for an answer to this question, I found instructions posted by Gulf of Maine Research Institute showing how to create a globe. Using manual methods ... What approach would I take to ...
19
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7answers
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Spatial reference for dummies?

Can anyone recommend a good reference or tutorial that explains the principles of spatial references, projections, and coordinate systems? We are a small team of programmers working with GIS ...
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Discontinuous or Interrupted map projections?

Do any of the current open source GIS softwares support discontinous projection systems? E.g. sinusoidal, dymaxion, butterfly, etc? If not, are there any affordable commercial ones that do (affordable ...
18
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1answer
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Calculating Flow Direction and Delineating Basins from Projected vs. Unprojected DEM Data

This is somewhat of a theoretical question stemming from some discussions with colleagues on the topic of implications with delineating basins with projected (e.g., Albers Equal Area) vs. unprojected ...
16
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8answers
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Can you suggest some well-written introductory texts about coordinate system projections?

Even after some time working in this GIS field, I still don't have a solid understanding of spatial references, how they are projected, and most importantly, if you still need to worry about the fact ...
16
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Map projection in OpenLayers

I want to overlay some data whose projection is WGS-84 on Google map layer in OpenLayers. But I just can't make them in the right place. I did as follows: map = new OpenLayers.Map('map', { ...
15
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Calculate distortion outside a UTM zone

One of my colleagues is working with data that is spread across two UTM zone. The majority of the data is in one zone, with a few outliers in another zone. He would like to know what the area ...
15
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2answers
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Which world map projection allows comparing countries by shape and size?

The Mercator projection increases scale along with the latitude. Greenland seems larger than Australia, when in fact it is much smaller. The equal-area projections however stretch shapes away from the ...
14
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5answers
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Does Re-Projecting ShapeFile only update content of *.prj file?

if i wish to change the projection of some shapefiles from .. lets say NAD83 (4269) to WGS84 (4326) ... and by using some 3rd party app .... does this mean the .prj file is only updated .. and not the ...
14
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2answers
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What is the approximate error of the Pythagorean Theorem vs. Haversine Formula in measuring distances on a sphere at various scales?

Many people when first trying to calculate distances between two longitude / latitude pairs ask if Pythagorean theorem works as an appropriate distance function. Most often people answer "no, the ...
13
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2answers
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API documentation for Gdal/Ogr with C#

I want to assign projection to shapefile in my web C# application, for this i am using Gdal/OGR/OSR C# bindings and add osr_csharp.dll and ogr_csharp.dll references. But i am facing some difficulty ...
13
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1answer
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Which is correct projection in ArcGIS Server for EPSG:3857/900913?

I want to publish a mapservice in ArcGIS server, which will be overlayed on Google Maps or Bing Maps. For this, the Map Service needs to be in EPSG:3857/900913. The Google Maps projection is supposed ...
12
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2answers
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How to reproject raster from 0 360 to -180 180 with cutting 180 meridian

I have a geotiff raster image that has a coordinate system with longtitudes from 0 to 360. The horizontal center of the image is 180 longtitude. See image below: I want to transform it to EPSG:4326 ...
12
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1answer
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How is a “conformal latitude” used in ellipsoidal stereographic projections?

At my work, I've been doing some maintenance on internal software that claims to implement a Stereographic projection whose formulas were copied from an old system a long time ago. From what I've ...
11
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7answers
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Public reprojection services

Are there any free public services where I can send one point in a coordsystem and it returns the point reprojected in a specified coordinate system? I will not be doing many requests, for now it is ...
11
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5answers
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Appropriate map projection for the Pacific Ocean

I've found this map that shows the Pacific Ocean from http://www.transpacificproject.com: I'd like to produce a similar map, for the same region of the earth and I'd like to use the same projection ...
11
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5answers
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How can I measure area from geographic coordinates?

If I have polygons in geographic coordinates (WGS84), how do I measure the total area each takes on the surface of the earth, taking into account the curvature of the earth?
11
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3answers
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Official term for latitude longitude coordinate system?

May I know what is the correct specific term for latitude longitude coordinate system? With "Geographic Coordinate", it seems to be a general term for every other system?
11
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4answers
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How to reproject spatial data using free libraries?

How can I use free libraries to transform spatial data? For example, I want to change the projection of a Shapefile within the code of my C# web application. How do I do that?
11
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6answers
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Where can I find GIS data to test GIS coordinate operations?

I am trying to find some data that can be used to test GIS coordinate operations from one CRS to another CRS. So far all I have found is the Gold Data set and also various example points in the EPSG ...
11
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1answer
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Great-circle lines in Equirectangular projection

Just to check that I'm on the right track: Are all great-circles on the sphere and in equirectangular projection (i.e. latitude, longitude pairs) either: meridians (i.e. going pole to pole) of the ...
11
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2answers
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How can I make a polyline wrap around the world?

I am using leaflet maps to create a representation of a round-the-world challenge. I would like to add a polyline which heads east from tokyo and then appears west of south america on the map - but ...
11
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1answer
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Assign projection to a satellite image

Today I stumbled upon a picture taken from the ISS looking down Europe and it is really beautiful. So, I started thinking I could add more to the picture. Like world borders, cities, road network, ...
11
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1answer
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How to define Winkel Tripel in proj 4.8.0?

I have QGIS with proj 4.8.0 installed. I'd like to add Winkel Tripel projection which seems to be defined as +proj=wintri But that definition string does not work. Is this a bug in my proj version, ...
10
votes
10answers
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Batch convert lat longs to UTM?

I've got a .csv file that contains a long list of latitude and longitude points. Is there an efficient way to batch convert the list into a projected UTM coordinate system? Thanks.
10
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3answers
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What is the right solution (and map projection) to compute distances between points located all over the World?

After my study on map projection I realized that it is very difficult to choose a projection that allows to compute simultaneously the distances between a great deal of points if these points are ...
10
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What is the standard Mercator projection?

I'm using QGIS in order to re-project a shapefile I have into "Mercator" so that something like protoviz understands my co-ordinates. Protoviz tells me "Mercator" ...
10
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2answers
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Waterman butterfly projection in Mapnik

Like the title says, how would someone configure Mapnik to use the Waterman butterfly projection ? Otherwise, what other tools would be able to render using this projection ?
10
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1answer
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Error assessment of calculation done using unprojected vs. projected data

This question builds off of the one with the subject line "Calculating Flow Direction and Delineating Basins from Projected vs. Unprojected Data.": Calculating Flow Direction and Delineating Basins ...