Raster is a data format consisting of regular grids of values, usually stored in an image-like format.

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What are Raster and Vector data in GIS and when to use?

What are raster and vector data in the GIS context? In general terms what applications, processes, or analysis are each suited for? (And not suited for!) In answering someone's question today, I ...
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8answers
2k views

What raster-based GIS systems really work?

Raster GISes like GRASS, ArcGIS/Spatial Analyst, and Idrisi can perform a rich set of data processing and analytical procedures loosely known as "map algebra." In today's computing environment it is ...
21
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4answers
6k views

What raster smoothing/generalization tools are available?

I have a DEM that I would like to smooth or generalize to remove topographic extremes (chop off peaks and fill-in valleys). Ideally, I would also like to have control over the radius or level of ...
21
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7answers
2k views

Work flow for georeferencing imagery using open source tools?

Does anyone have a recommendation for a work flow for georeferencing high resolution aerial photography using open source tools? Comparison of user friendliness and robustness between Quantum GIS ...
21
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2answers
1k views

How to represent trend over time?

I have a time series of rasters where the cells of each raster represents some value at a certain time. I'd like to generate a map that highlights the magnitude of positive or negative trends in this ...
19
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3answers
4k views

What is Lanczos resampling useful for in a spatial context?

GDAL includes a resampling method beyond the normal mix of nearest neighbor, bilinear, cubic and splines: "Lanczos windowed sinc resampling". I understand that its a convolution filter, but unlike ...
19
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3answers
1k views

Packing Polygons within polygon

I have a Boolean raster. In the grey areas of the raster I would like to fit a given size polygon within a contiguous extent. Basically, I have an irregular polygon, and i would like to "fit" a ...
19
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3answers
15k views

How to clip a raster with vector boundaries?

I am using QGIS. I would like to clip a raster precipitation layer using an admin boundary layer that is vector data. However the geoprocessing tools seem to be usable only for vector data. How can ...
18
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5answers
2k views

What is Change Detection and how I can perform such analysis with open source tools?

From wikipedia page: Change detection for GIS (geographical information systems) is a process that measures how the attributes of a particular area have changed between two or more time periods. ...
16
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576 views

How to buffer raster pixels by their values?

The pixels to the left represent tree locations and their associated crown radii (i.e. pixel values ranging from 2 - 5). I would like to buffer these raster pixels by their crown radius value. The ...
16
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3answers
669 views

Dealing with bridges and tunnels when modeling raster least cost paths?

I'm currently using ArcGIS 10 Spatial Analyst's Cost Path tool to model pedestrian routes. I have sidewalks, fences, buildings and a ton of pedestrian scale features, all combined into a cost surface ...
16
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1answer
182 views

Can we create views over a raster table in Postgis2.0?

Is it possible to create PostgreSQL views over a table that contains raster data? I have succeeded in creating the view but the entry in raster_columns is not correct (all the raster info is ...
15
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918 views

Speed of various raster data formats

I'm having trouble locating any discussion or comparative benchmarking of different raster file formats (e.g., for use in data analysis in R). Does anybody have any insight into why particular formats ...
15
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4answers
2k views

Where can I find examples of fuzzy logic applications in ArcGIS?

The last ArcGIS version (10) includes two arctoolbox tools for fuzzy logic (Fuzzy Membership, and Fuzzy Overlay). Does anyone know where can I find some examples showing how they can be applied? ...
14
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6answers
1k views

Creating simple image from vector data

Can anyone suggest a quick (and preferably open source) way to create an image from a shapefile. For example, I have a shapefile containing parcel boundaries, I want to create a png file depicting ...
14
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2answers
4k views

How can I convert data in the form of lat, lon, value into a raster file using R?

I have a data set of values over a km grid in the continental U.S. The columns are "latitude", "longitude", and "observation", e.g.: "lat" "lon" "yield" 25.567 -120.347 3.6 25.832 ...
14
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2answers
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Performing Raster Noise Reduction and Edge Smoothing?

I have a raster image like this I want to delete the isolated noise point and smooth the edge (say the white single points, and I want the edges of the entity look smooth). How can I do this in ...
14
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2answers
1k views

What resampling technique should be used when projecting aerial photos?

I'm doing some time-intensive projecting of aerial photos, and I'm curious - what resampling technique is best to use on aerial photos? In ArcMap, my options are NEAREST, BILINEAR, CUBIC, and ...
14
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3answers
354 views

Which CRS would you use to georeference historical world maps?

Which CRS would you recommend to georeference historical world maps like the ones in the London Geographical Institute - The Peoples Atlas - 1920, e.g. The map displays a lat/lon grid which I would ...
14
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3answers
351 views

Is it possible to use symbols instead of colours to visualise raster cell values?

I have a raster image (GeoTIFF) with integer values. I know how to visualise raster values in QGIS using colormaps or similar, but I would like to assign symbols to each colour value instead - just ...
14
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1answer
852 views

Are there any general rules of thumb for selecting a transformation for Georeferencing?

There are several transformations that can be used when georeferencing a raster: 1st order Polynomial (affine) 2nd order Polynomial 3rd order Polynomial Spline... etc Are there any specific rules ...
13
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5answers
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Is Hillshade option in ArcMap rubbish or is it me?

Here is a pretty pic of the raster I am using - with no effects applied - just the color ramp and historgram adjusted to show out all the relief - all be it in a very 2D way! I have a raster layer ...
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3answers
562 views

How to count consecutive pixel values for a set of rasters?

All, I'm using ArcGIS 10 with Spatial Analyst. I have a set of rasters (8 in total) that only every contain a 1 or a 0 for each cell. Each raster represents a different years worth of data. For ...
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2answers
2k views

How to smooth/interpolate a raster in python using GDAL?

This is my first post so please feel free to critique where necessary. Background: I am developing in Python and using GDAL from OSGEO to manipulate and interact with rasters and shapefiles. ...
13
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2answers
1k views

Good practice for generating contours from a DEM

We have just received a large set of DEMs at work and I would like to generate contours from them. The DEMs have a resolution of 1m and a size of 1kmx1km. Output from gdalinfo: Driver: ...
12
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4answers
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How do you decide what interpolation method to use for resampling raster data?

The question pretty much says it all; are there hard and fast rules about which interpolation methods are suited to each kind of raster data? Any Golden rules, rules of thumb? Good books or articles ...
12
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4answers
473 views

When should I be calling a 'rectangular grid of pixels' a raster or an image?

Reading through GIS literature, it sometimes feels that authors use the two terms with a specific meaning in mind. I always treat the terms interchangeably. Am I wrong? Read the first line in the ...
12
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3answers
275 views

What practices are available for modelling land suitability?

I currently use a "classic" raster based approach of dividing a study area into cells. All input layers are converted to rasters at the same cell resolution and given a suitability rating. A final ...
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6answers
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How do I create a shapefile showing footprints of Rasters?

I have around 1,000 satellite images in tiff format, and I want to create a shapefile which will serve as an index to the rasters. This is something similar to a raster catalog, but I do not want to ...
11
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2answers
438 views

Converting ascii windspeed files to rasters

I have been trying to convert windspeed files to rasters without success. It was discussed in an Arcgis forum which I followed. This involved replacing semi-colons with spaces and adding a header. I ...
11
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2answers
3k views

Clipping a raster in R

I am building a map for the northeastern U.S.A. The map background needs to be either an altitude map or a mean annual temperature map. I have two rasters from Worldclim.org which give me these ...
11
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3answers
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Writing numpy array to raster file

I'm new to GIS, and I'm lost with something I feel ought to be relatively simple. I have some code that converts infrared images of Mars into thermal inertia maps, which are then stored as 2D numpy ...
11
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5answers
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Get Raster Values from a Polygon Overlay in Opensource GIS Solutions

I have two layers. A polygon-shape-layer with many tiles and a raster-layer containing CORINE 2006 land cover with many categories in a colourmap. I want to obtain for each polygon in the shapelayer a ...
11
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1answer
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Random sampling of raster using R

Is there a straightforward way of randomly sampling a raster so that the output of the process is a raster? I'm using an example that I found on the r-sig-geo list and I have also tried the ...
11
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5answers
2k views

How to scan large paper maps without a large format scanner?

Is there a way people have used to import a paper map as a raster without using a large format scanner. I do not want to cut my map. I'm wondering how much success people have gotten using things like ...
11
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5answers
6k views

How to perform Raster Reclassification in QGIS?

Is there a way to do reclassify a raster image to Qgis? In Arcgis you can do that in Spatial analyst Tools→Reclass→Reclassify Any ideas?
11
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3answers
834 views

Web mapping software for a huge raster time series?

I'm an ArcGIS Desktop user who is stepping into the world of web mapping for the first time. Following advice I found here on GIS.SE, I started with the free tutorials from OpenGeo. However, I ...
11
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4answers
549 views

Dikes extraction from DEM

I do have DEM of 1x1 meter and original LiDAR point cloud in .las, that DEM is made of. I need to extract river dikes (highest points of the dikes) to vector feature (point, polyline). Any idea for ...
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4answers
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Loading a raster into a PostGIS 2.0 database on Windows

I'm trying to figure out how to load a raster into a PostGIS2.0 database (I have asked previous questions on this topic here and here). I am trying to use the raster2pgsql.exe program provided with ...
11
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1answer
493 views

QGis raster terrain analysis - The curvature filter puzzles me

I am a french Master student at university Grenoble INP, and during my master project I have worked on DEM (raster) terrain analysis. Thus, I have read the source code of several QGis-1.7.4 raster ...
11
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1answer
639 views

Method to shade or overlay a raster map to reflect time of day and ambient light

I have a daytime raster of my study area. I have 20+ counters in the study area that count "stuff" with a timestamp. Using PyEphem I determined the type of ambient light for each collected data ...
11
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2answers
483 views

How sensitive is Landsat to atmospheric correction?

How important is it to correct Landsat for atmosphere, haze and convert DN to reflectance? What impact does it have on the results, say for many of the vegetation indices?
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Problems with NA values when reading .DEM file with R 'raster' package in Windows

I am trying to read a raster file in a .DEM format on windows using the 'raster' package in R. I get problems with NA values, when loading the data into R in Windows 7, but I do not have the problem ...
10
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6answers
578 views

How do I iterate through every cell in a continuous raster?

See this link for more details. The Problem: I want to loop through a continuous raster (one that has no attribute table), cell by cell, and get the value of the cell. I want to take those values ...
10
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2answers
172 views

Are “gridded data” and “raster data” the same thing?

I'm working on a project that will involve both "raster data" (aerial imagery and DEMs) and "gridded data" which I understand to be other kinds of numerical measurements taken at grid points, and ...
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735 views

How to speed up queries for raster databases?

I have a raster database in postgresql/postgis with these columns: (ID, rast, data_of_data). 'rast' is the column that has raster files in WKT format. An example query to find the DN value of a ...
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3answers
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Extract Raster Value into Polygon Attribute

I have Raster Data for a State which has Elevation Data in its pixels. I also have Vector layer which has the 300 divisions of State. what I need is, I want to get the average elevation value of ...
10
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2answers
243 views

Count raster value in a bounding box (spatial extent)

I have simple question: given a bounding box, how can I count the number of specific values (say, I am interested in the number of value == 1 ) in a raster in 1) arcpy, or 2) raster package in R?
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1answer
487 views

What is some theory on the number of GCP when georeferencing?

Just wondering, is it always better to have more than 3 GCPs? Should the GCPs be spread out evenly? Where can I find some general resources on the theory of this? Other than trial an error, which ...
10
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2answers
314 views

What are the advantages/disadvantages of populating a PostGIS database with Raster information?

...as opposed to keeping the rasters as locally stored GEOTIFFs? I have a large project that will require making available approximetely 50,000, 10mb GEOTIFFs as WMS to an OpenLayers based web map. ...