Data Driven Pages is functionality within ArcGIS for Desktop that allows you to quickly and easily create map book pages from a single map document
For more information about Data Driven Pages consult the What are Data Driven Pages? from the Online Help which starts:
Data Driven Pages allow you to quickly and easily create a series of layout pages from a single map document. A feature layer, or index layer, divides the map into sections based on each index feature in the layer and generates one page per index feature.