The study of statistics such as births, deaths, density, migration, or growth of human populations.

Demography is the science of vital and social statistics of human populations with the aim to understand their structure and change over time and space. Demographic parameters studied are for example birth rates, fertility, life expectancy, infant mortality, population growth, and many more.

Demography is an inherently spatial science and in recent years there has been an increased interest in adding a more formalized spatial perspective to demography - probably partly driven by the increased availability of geospatial data, new technologies and methods of analysis.

Census maps are one of many examples of a spatial representation of demographic data.

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