New answers tagged free-data
I would recommend Landsat or MODIS for this task. You can access Landsat or MODIS data through Earth Explorer or Reverb|Echo. There are a number of publications on the subject to help you along the way: Brekke, C., & Solberg, A. H. (2005). Oil spill detection by satellite remote sensing. Remote sensing of environment, 95(1), 1-13. Hu, C., Li, X., ...
After some trial and error the most practical solution turned out to be: Use a shape file of all world countries, add the Suez and Panama canal manually using software like QGIS, add the ice of the arctic and Antarctica using shapefiles as well. This gives you a map of all the places a ship can go. I left out the inland waterways in the end. However these ...
One of the best sources for open-source vector and raster map data is Natural Earth. There is a variety of data available at large, medium and small scale. You would likely need the Ports dataset available from 1:10m Cultural Vectors and the Rivers, Lake Centerlines available from 1:50m Physical Vectors.
Natural Earth might offer the data you need on a worldwide scale. For lower zoom levels, the Openstreetmap rendering toolchain uses that source too, because it is much faster than querying the global database.
From the US Census: TIGER County Shapefile From this file you could Spatially Join your 9-Digit ZIP code file to the county file, and get the resultant State and county FIPs codes. If you are wanting to match your 9-Digit codes to ZIP codes, then use TIGER ZCTA5 Shapefile with the same workflow as above, but now your resultant join will containt ZIP codes ...
I believe you're talking about the FIPS state codes? You can obtain publicly available data from somewhere like Tiger Line that have the codes (most of these datasets do) and perform a spatial join of your zip codes. Here is a source with one for the whole world, sub-divided: http://www.gadm.org/home
The available free gridded global data mostly relates to near-surface wind speed and direction over global oceans. Free global land surface wind speed datasets are few. None that I know come in GIS format, as each cell has two data values, one for speed and one for vector - but more digging might provide disaggregation and the possibility of mapping at ...
You could check out the sources quoted for this great weather visualisation at http://earth.nullschool.net/
Are there any parameters on the cities you want? GeoNames might be a good resource. Under their tools page there is a GeoNames csv file to shapefile converter. It might take a little bit of work and sifting through the data to get exactly what you want.
Must it be a shapefile? Google Maps offer something like you asked as a kml file (kmz in fact, which is just a zip containing a kml), at https://www.google.com/maps/d/viewer?mid=zMlf_4RO8x7E.kllT447wz1Ws&msa=0&ie=UTF8&t=m&ll=8.407168,165.9375&spn=130.849955,280.898438&z=2&source=embed
As it has already been suggested, NOAA has one of the best databases for data, a specialised one. Also, I'd recommend GEBCO, from their data you can actually create pretty decent maps (I did for the Black Sea as an example).
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