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In addition to an answer over in SO, the inverse geodetic solution is not easy with near-antipodal points, as your question has. The inverse geodetic problem is solved iteratively using Vincenty's 1975 algorithm, which fails to converge for near antipodal points. However, the problem is still solvable using a different approach. See page 40 of Rapp RH ...


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On the surface of a sphere, all lines are "horizontal lines" by definition. But you mean something else! If you refer to lines parallel to the equator (parallels of latitude), then they are all oriented E-W, i.e., have 0 or 270 azimuths. Any line, including those parallels, whose azimuth is unchanged at all points along it, is called a loxodrome (or rhumb ...


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First, be careful with phrasing. Your "the angle between two locations" is unclear. Keeping things to a simple sphere, the azimuth of any oblique great circle route depends entirely on where you measure it. It can range all the way from 0 to 360 and be correct. You probably seek the starting azimuth of a great circle route from a certain point to another ...



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