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Using a spherical model of the earth may give adequate accuracy and leads to simple fast calculations. Convert all coordinates into earth-centered (3D) cartesian coordinates. For example, the formula (cos(lon)*cos(lat), sin(lon)*cos(lat), sin(lat)) will do. (It uses a distance measure in which the earth's radius is one unit, which is convenient.) ...


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In the question, you state that the coordinates are in Lat/Long, but you later say that you define the coordinate system of the file as being British National Grid. Might you have defined the file as BNG (a projected system) when the data is actually in a geographic format? This might explain the points not showing up anywhere in the data frame.


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Some people use rotated spheres as a basis for further mapping. I turned up a blog post about the capabilities of D3 here with has examples and here's another page about the some of the math behind it, although from a graphics perspective. For earth solutions, usually a sphere is rotated rather than an ellipsoid because of the simpler mathematics. Not ...


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Because the Earth is not a sphere, measuring the latitude from the equator plane is the only way to have circular parallels. Therefore I think that any geographic coordinate system that would not use the equator plane as a reference would have more disadvantages than advantages. If you need a specific coordinate system, I would therefore rather suggest ...



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