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5

Simple answer? They didn't really. Their routes are mostly coast-hopping. When they left the known coasts (i.e. crossing non-contiguous continents), they really hadn't a clue where they were. Latitude was OK with a star chart, but longitude was impossible until the chronometer was invented. Dead reckoning runs out of accuracy pretty quickly, and fails ...


3

Polynesian navigation The Polynesians observed and learned a star catalog of declination and right ascension--This allowed them to ( a ) identify and name a navigation course, ( b ) transmit it orally to another navigator, ( c ) follow such a course. My understanding is that they learned "chains"--a chain is a sequence of stars that rise at approximately ...


12

There are a variety of ways to navigate across oceans without the aid of maps and in particular the Mercator Projection. It is worth noting that before the invention of the chronometer (calculation of longitude) in 1764 there wasn't a reliable way of measuring longitude when out-of-sight of land. Most of the history I have read includes the Mediterranean ...


0

You can use the Google Maps Roads API. This however, requires that you send HTTP-requests, and thereby also that you have an available internet connection, but it seems like it is the only solution, if you don't want to code your own map system to replace Google Maps, and use any open data source, like OpenStreetMap, and create your own rendering system ...



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