New answers tagged rendering
I used a version of osm2pgsql that can handle 64-bit IDs. I think it happens when I merged some pbf data files with osm2pgsql into one database or "style" the data with the style attribute that osm2pgsql offers. I rebuild the Database using osmconvert to put thinks together and osm2pgsql to import that merged file into the postGIS Databse (without style=). ...
Are you sure you have a recent version of osm2pgsql? Older versions (prior to 2013) can not handle node numbers correctly since these have hit the 32-bit limit. The Windows version still might have issues, see https://github.com/openstreetmap/osm2pgsql/issues/17 for the latest development builds.
Did you check the way types are the same? Might not be translating from cartoCSS/mapnik to postgis... If you need to patch data together should try overpass api to query for and join the missing data
The official OSM maps get styled with TileMill and rendered with Mapnik. Both tools are extremely powerful and flexible. What is good for OSM, should be good for you! Unfortunately the setup procedure for TileMillis a complicating, at least if you want to render OSM data. There are a lot of descriptions for Ubuntu or Mac, but the comments in forums show, ...
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