I have a polyline layer of roads and a raster of land ownership. For each raster cell I would like to calculate the distance to the nearest road.
I am on ArcMap 10.2 with Spatial Analyst and 3D analyst.
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You can't give your existing cells a distance to the line feature as in the Point Distance tool for vector points.
You can, however, calculate a new raster of distances to the line feature using the Euclidean Distance tool.
You will have to ensure that you sent your cell size and snap raster to the original raster, so you get essentially a new raster with distance as the cell values, that lines up pixel for pixel with your original raster.
Whatever analysis you're going to do from there, you can do by selecting the cells from the new 'distance raster' using something like Extract by Attributes, using a where clause to define the cells that match the distance you're after.
Then you can use that selection to grab pixels in your original raster using Extract by Mask, where the 'mask' is the 'distance selection' you made in the last step.
have you tried "Euclidian distance" ? you can set up the environment so that the pixel size is the same as your other raster.