I want to add photos in my attribute table. I have created a new field but I am not able to select "raster" in the field type. They only show "short integer", "long integer", "float", "double", "text" and "date".
It sounds like you want to associate a photo with a vector data set, such as a point or polygon, which could be accessed through a pop-up window. Although a photograph is indeed a raster, it sounds like you may be confusing raster data type with linking to a photograph. In ArcGIS the latter can be achieved in a couple ways:
(1) If you are using a shape or feature you could achieve this by using a hyperlink to link to your photo, either on your local drive or somewhere public on the web. ESRI has good documentation on this.
(2) If you are working in a geodatabase you could attach the photo, using the Add Attachments tool.
You can add the field "raster" to the atributte table just if you are working with geodatabase. I find this tutorial that I think is what you were looking for:
it here for you https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=62LlVqOo8RM You can insert an image to feature's attribute and show it in ArcMap