After some days I was finally able to import OSM data to a PostgreSQL database and connect it with ArcGIS 10.2.2
I can load every piece I want by simple clicking "Add data ..." however a SQL query layer always delivers the complete data rather than selecting the rows.
Here is what I set up first:
And that's what remains after ArcGIS finished loading the layer:
I don't understand why it keeps transforming the query expression.
In pgAdmin it shows just fine:
I am really clueless in this matter and ArcGIS is just so slow loading all the data over and over again (instead of QGIS, where the query is no problem).