For example, say I have some streets I would like to show up, and streets are only set to appear at certain zoom level, well that layer does not get exported. There must be a way to do this for pdf, am I right?
Negative. Adobe Acrobat or Professional is not the program to achieve what you are trying to do. PDF's are meant to be sheets of paper on your screen, that's why they are hard to edit and reproduce.
I've done a similar thing with Zoomify, but that doesn't change the layers based on zoom level.
Really I think you need a web application to do this. If you have ArcGIS, head over to ArcGIS Online upload your layers and share your map with your clients or partners or whoever. This way you can have a dynamic easily shareable map. You can even embed it in a website for sharing.
Depends on your needs with your client and the reason for doing this. There are ways to do it, but a PDF is not one.
I agree to have scale dependency set in your layers use an online mapping service or map server. the easiest and free is https://github.com/klokantech/tileserver-php QGIS Server or QGIS Cloud
The previous answers are not complete/correct. There are two options for creating spatial functionality in a PDF. The first is the open standard Geospatial PDF. Users do not require the any proprietary plug-in to read geospatial PDFs created following the PDF 1.7 specification, which was published as ISO 32000-1 standard. Geospatial PDF's can be create using ArcGIS or a number of other tools. However, a Geospatial PDF does not support scale dependency. Functionality is limited.
You can create additional geospatial functionality using a propriety system called terraGo that creates an extended PDF called a "GeoPDF".