Please tell me why we use:
max Extent: new Open Layers.Bounds( -20037508.34, -20037508.34, 20037508.34, 20037508.34)
when adding Google Maps layer in OpenLayers? i.e. please tell me about this function? )
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You can set a maxExtent that differs from the default maxExtent in order to be able to zoom to this maxExtent with the OpenLayers.Control.ZoomToMaxExtent.
Your maxExtent is nearly the whole world-Extent (-180, -85.05112877980659, 180, 85.0511287798066) but could be set to a smaller area.
See this jsfiddle: http://jsfiddle.net/expedio/cpthr93m/