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As a comment on an Esri blog post entitled Announcing the ArcGIS Pro beta program last May someone named mahenderraj asked:

I presume that it is not possible to share the map as a mapservice to ArcGIS server from ArcGIS Pro. For that we have to use the regular ArcMap Desktop product.

I do not seem to have seen an answer to this, and in the ArcGIS Pro 1.0 interface it seems easy to publish maps to ArcGIS Online or Portal for ArcGIS but ArcGIS Server gets no mention.

Is it possible to publish a map from ArcGIS Pro to ArcGIS Server as a Map Service?

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The functionality to publish map services via Python using CreateSharingDraft has been implemented in version ArcGIS Pro 2.3:

Creates a MapServiceDraft from a Map in an ArcGIS Pro project.

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You cannot publish a map service to ArcGIS Server from ArcGIS Pro. There are no GP tools for that available in Pro and no GUI options for that either. No arcpy functions that could do that either. As you already found out, your options are ArcGIS Online and Portal.

A quote from an Esri blog post in February 2015:

The first release of ArcGIS Pro does not allow you to publish geoprocessing services. In fact, you cannot publish any services to an ArcGIS server, as you can only make user connections to these servers. Publishing functionality will be added at a later release.

In spite of that, it might be possible to publish Geocode, Geoprocessing, and Image services. This is because there corresponding functions in arcpy available for creating drafts in Pro for that. Then one needs to use the Stage service GP tool and then Upload service definition (both of them available under Server Tools > Publishing). I haven't tested that yet; it might be that those tools are made available for the future releases, but it might just work as the Python code doesn't seem to differ from the standard ArcGIS Desktop.

I don't work with Portal, but when you share a hosted map layer in ArcGIS Pro to Portal, it seems as it should end up on the federated ArcGIS Server. So, it might be a way to go if you need to make your resource available to non-Portal users with ArcGIS Server interface.

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An ArcGIS Idea about this was created back in 2016, and at every Esri event I have been to since ArcGIS Pro came out, someone has asked when this would be added. It looks like Esri has finally decided to listen and according to the Q&A from the 2018 Esri user conference:

Q: Is there a plan to allow publishing of services from ArcGIS Pro directly to ArcGIS Server?

A: Esri is planning to add this capability to ArcGIS Pro and is targeting delivery starting with releases planned for the first half of 2019. ... we understand this need and we are planning to add support to ArcGIS Pro so that it will be functionally equivalent to ArcMap in terms of publishing services to standalone ArcGIS servers. This includes the ability to publish map, feature, and image services.

I'll believe it when I'm using it, but this is an improvement on their past response to users clamoring for this feature, which was basically to say "You can publish to Server using Pro if you use Portal" while ignoring all the shortcomings of that process.

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