We receive quite a many spatial data from various sources and export to our enterprise database (Esri). But no metadata is available in Description table. I am looking for a tool or method to get all the attributes, which can be easily populated from the files e.g. spatial extent, projection etc.
You could try the "synchronize metadata" tool from the Conversion Toolbox (Metadata Toolset). It will populate the fields you mention (extent & spatial reference, and more! : attribute list, geometry type, number of objects, ... or number of bands, cell-size & depth for raster, to mention only a few) by reading the data structure, encoding, spatial & geometric features.
When you display a detailed view of the metadata in ArcCatalog, all fields marked with a "*" are synchronized fields, which can be updated by Synchronizing the metadata with the data structure & contents.