I'm using these DLLs and I'm very new to GIS and Geodatabase files in general.
I'm just curious if I can get a list of the tables and some more in depth documentation/examples if possible.
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The documentation shows both can be obtained by requests against the Geodatabase object (Geodatabase::GetChildDatasets & Geodatabase::GetDatasetDocumentation, respectively). The documentation is what it is; I doubt anyone has written a book about FGDB API.
and again by @Vince:
FileGDB_API_VS2010_1_4/doc/index.html I believe you can use an empty string or a "/" to fetch the top-level objects (simple feature classes outside feature datasets, plus the list of container objects).