I'm looking for basic political borders for the province of Quebec, as well as property parcel data and topography. Any suggestions for inexpensive/free data?
Quebec is big you can find open data by individual municipality.
To get you started here is Quebec City
http://donnees.ville.quebec.qc.ca/catalogue.aspx Has many formats common to GIS (shp,KML,DWG etc).
Note: Not all municipalities have the same level of opendata, property parcel might have be sourced another way (aerial, LiDAR, imagery).
For Smaller scale boundaries you will find Natural Earth very useful. http://www.naturalearthdata.com/downloads/10m-cultural-vectors/