I am working with an aerial image containing three spectral bands (blue, green, and red-edge). I can obtain an NDVI image with the imagery using Erdas Imagine, but I do not know which bands Imagine is actually using to calculate the NDVI.

How do I find out exactly which bands Imagine is using to calculate the NDVI?

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you can check the bands that are being used by clicking on the index option tab. Erdas will usually select the correct bands based on the information from the sensor, but your image is probably not in the list. In any case, your result will not be NDVI because you don't have the bands that are needed for NDVI (red and NIR). "Red-edge" could replace either red or NIR (depending which one is closer). And if you can view your image with some kinf of "natural color" I guess that your "red-edge" band will be more around 700 nm than 800 nm. Therefore you are missing information on the "NIR" side.

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