So if you want to be able to make edits to those layers without exposing editing of the services in the public maps and you are using ArcGIS Online hosted feature services I would recommend you share the layers to a group with shared ownership control enabled (admins of the org can set these up), then invite the members of your org that would be performing these edits to these layers. The group members can then open these layers into a map by adding the layer with full editing control which will allow the user performing the edits to only have editing capabilities for the session the layers are in the map you will not be exposing edit capabilities to the general public.
You can read about it here:
and here has some more info but I clipped out the most important part below:
Restrict editing of public layers
Sometimes, you need to make a hosted feature layer available to the public for viewing, but you only want a few members of your organization to edit it. If you enabled editing on a public hosted feature layer, anyone could edit it. Instead, share the hosted feature layer with a group that an Esri-defined Administrator created and configured to allow editing of all contents. Add or invite organization members to this group who you want to edit items. All items shared to this group can be updated by group members, including hosted feature layers that do not have editing enabled.
When members need to edit the hosted feature layer, they open the hosted feature layer's details and click Open > Add layer to new map with full editing control.