We would like to have a published web service with capabilities to allow geoprocessing operations (consume feature data) - select tool (e.g. select by attributes) - on the service when we view/open it in ArcMap as lyr file, but only allowing query the data and not the download/export of it. Different web service capabilities (Mapping, Feature Access) were tried without success. How can we do it?
The only way I think you can do this in ArcMap with web layers would be to create custom Add-Ins or script tools. MapServices support a query operation (which includes attribute and spatial queries), but this has to be done through HTTP protocol (through the REST API, or as SOAP which is how services in ArcMap are handled).
Python is an excellent way to perform query tasks against REST endpoints. However, that being said it seems like more work than it is worth if you just want to be able to query and select records. This is not really what map services were designed for, they were meant to be consumed in the web.
@crmackey you are certainly right with your solution how to deal with webservices requests using standards, thanks!
Later we found what we need using an ArcGIS GUI way: Having the webservice published with Feature access capability we add in ArcCatalog a GIS server connection to Use GIS services and then added Feature data to the TOC in ArcMap.
The ArcGIS Online Webapp Builder is something for you. You can read all about it over here: http://doc.arcgis.com/en/web-appbuilder/
Here is some more information about analysis in ArcGIS Online: http://www.esri.com/esri-news/arcwatch/0813/perform-gis-analysis-in-the-cloud-with-arcgis-online