I am currently working in ArcGIS 10.2.2 for Desktop and would like to know if there is a workflow for creating a unique ID for polygons within a shapefile based on their location. I am using data driven pages that are clipped to individual Township/Range/Sections of a city. There is polygon information that spans the entire city, but would like to create some type of unique identifier that allows users (of the exported attribute table) to quickly see where a polygon is located based on the identifier. What I currently have in mind is to list the Township/Range/Section and add a numeric suffix. For example, in the image below the first polygon in Township26-Range42-Section27 (highlighted in red) would be 26-42-27-1. The Township/Range/Section information is saved in another shapefile, so I am not sure the best process to append that info to the individual polygons within this other shapefile based on location.
I agree with PolyGeo; if you do use the intersect tool that will provide you with a basis to at least link your data together. You would then want to make a new field and use the field calculator with something like this: [RangeInfo]&"-"&[FID] where [RangeInfo] is whatever field has your T/R/S info. If you have access to SQL Server or other spatial database, as spatial query could also be used to move the information from your one layer to the other as part of an update query.