I have been having this issues of ArcGIS (ArcMap and ArcCatalog) crashing on me every time I try to connect to the databases. I have updated both client and server patches for Oracle as suggested by ESRI tech support but nothing has changed. I cannot even click on the Properties without getting ArcGIS to crash. I am using Windows 7 Enterprise SP1 64-bit OS. Has anyone encountered this and have solution for it?
Please upgrade your ArcMap / ArcGIS for Desktop to 10.2. ESRI has always, since version 8.0, the first release of ArcGIS, came out 17 years ago, clearly stated you need to upgrade your clients before you upgrade your geodatabase.
Look at it from another side, you don't expect Office '95 to be able to open your Office 365 documents, do you? So why do you expect ArcMap 10.1 to be able to access a 10.2 database?
A workaround for this problem is to perform the appropriate Oracle Critical Patch Update for your ArcGIS version https://support.esri.com/download/2143