I have a polygon layer with one object. It is a flood inundation map. I could see my layer all the time in every scale factor. From one moment to the other it changed and know it is only visible if i zoom out and the whole polygon is visible. If i zoom in and only a part of the polygon should be visible, there is nothing. What can I do? I tried everything with layer properties -> general ->scale dependent visibility, but even if i uncheck it, the Layer is not visible.
Check if the shapefile's spatial index is stale or corrupt. Based on this technical article from ESRI, the shapefile's spatial index maybe corrupted. The technical article offers a solution that may help you solve the problem. Please have a look at it.
Another option is to try to export your data to a new shapefile, and see if that solve your problem.