How do you convert an image (ex: company logo) into a font and store it within arcmap so that it can be called upon to label point features with?
Convert the font or image into an EMF vector graphic in graphic software such as Adobe Illustrator then use it as the picture marker symbol and it will be rendered as vector. You can also add any EMF vector (i.e. logo) to map layour as image and it will also render as vector. You can introduce 100% transparency to remove backround but only solid and 100% transperent properties will be honoured, semi-transparent will render as solid.
Have a look at EUDCEDIT. It's a "hidden" program that is included in most windows versions that can be used to edit and create fonts. I have used it do do exactly what you are trying to achieve. Once you create your font, it will appear under the name "EUDC" in your list of fonts available through the "Character Marker Symbol" type in the "Symbol Property Editor" dialogue in ArcMap.