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I should calculate the short distance between points and polygons of the same type.

I have more than 2000 points of 60 different types. And shapefile with 60 polygons of the different species.

The Tool "Near" in ArcGIS Desktop, should work, but you cannot assign to the Input and Near Features "a common field", in order to automatically distinguish which type of polygon corresponds to each point type.

Is there any method in ArcGIS Desktop to deal with it?

  • What happened when you tried the Near tool in ArcGIS for Desktop? – PolyGeo Jun 8 '16 at 22:37
  • Is not possible to assign a Field type in this tool. So near tool calculates the distances of the points to the near polygon of any type. – Inao V. Jun 8 '16 at 23:19
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    Without looking I think you can just use the Near_FID to join to those fields. – PolyGeo Jun 8 '16 at 23:25
  • In this case I would use Generate Near table, which will calculate (of course) the distance between every point and polygon (uncheck closest only) then add a species1 and species2 field to the near table, join using the Input_FID and Near_FID to the points and polygons to calculate the field then select from the table where species1=species2 to limit the rows to only the ones with the same species, join the reduced table to the points (Input_FID) and you have your answer... do this in a geodatabase and not a shapefile, the tendency for shapefiles to change their FID would cause problems! – Michael Stimson Jun 8 '16 at 23:48
  • As @michael Stimson suggested, 1- Generate Near table, 2- Join Field, 3- Summary Statistics to get min distance per Type. – klewis Dec 2 '18 at 18:29
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As commented by @MichaelStimson:

In this case I would use Generate Near table, which will calculate (of course) the distance between every point and polygon (uncheck closest only) then add a species1 and species2 field to the near table, join using the Input_FID and Near_FID to the points and polygons to calculate the field then select from the table where species1=species2 to limit the rows to only the ones with the same species, join the reduced table to the points (Input_FID) and you have your answer... do this in a geodatabase and not a shapefile, the tendency for shapefiles to change their FID would cause problems!

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