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I have many files with name format yyyymmddhhmm_tprate.asc 201508010600_tprate.asc , 201508011200_tprate , 201508011800_tprate, 201508020000_tprate and so on ..........

I want to subtract 201508011200_tprate - 201508010600_tprate, 201508011800_tprate-201508011200_tprate and so on and want to save these files with a new name.

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1) You could try to convert your ascii files to rasters:

 import arcpy,os,re
 from arcpy import env
 from arcpy.sa import *
 arcpy.CheckOutExtension("Spatial")

 arcpy.env.workspace = (r"<where ascii files are">)
 out_dir = (r"<Where you want them to go>")


  asciilist = arcpy.ListDatasets("*","ASCII")
  count = 1
  for ascii in asciilist:
     outRaster = arcpy.ASCIIToRaster_conversion(ascii, "", "INTEGER")
     outname = os.path.join(out_dir, str(ascii)) # Create the full out path
     outRaster.save(outname)

2) You can try a raster calculator workaround using the answer to Raster Calculator Workaround in Arcpy for Suitabiliy Analysis

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